Scripts influence our expectations and guide our

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Unformatted text preview: hese scripts with repeated experiences with various categories of social interactions. Scripts influence our expectations and guide our actions in many situations. For instance students may have a one script that guides their actions on the play ground, another that represents their experience at lunch, a script that is activated for Manuscript 9/28/03 15 regular class, and another script that guides their behavior when they have a substitute teacher. How might an understanding of scripts explain Judy Forester’s experience in her art class? ⇒ For most of my students this is their first real art class, and they really don’t know what to expect. To help them adjust, I take the first few class periods doing simple art exercises, so they can get used to the materials and routines of the class, before they begin work on any complicated projects. A third important type of schema is the text schema. Text schema store information about the different types of organizing structures that appear in text (Gagne, Yekovich, and Yekovich, 1993). The knowledge of the structure of texts improves our ability to comprehend and recall what we have read (Bartlett, 1932 and Meyer, 1975). Text schema may be organized into two broad categories, narrative (or stories) or expository text (McNeil, 1987). Children seem to be more naturally adept at comprehending stories, possible because stories are such a natural way for people to communicate. However much of the texts students are required to read in school fall into the expository category, and students comprehension of these text can be improved by providing some explicit instruction about this type of text is organization. Helen Kruger applies this idea in her Geography class. ⇒ Many of my seventh graders are actually very good readers but they still have trouble with our geography textbook. I take some time at the beginning of the year and teach them how to use the textbook’s headings and subheadings to create an outline of the information in the text. It seems to help the students remember and understand what they have read. Manuscript 9/28/03 16 Schemata influence several key learning processes. They allow us to recognize when something is or is not an example of an object of event, and allow us to make inferences when we are supplied with incomplete information. They also can affect where we focus attention and how we store information in memory (Anderson & Pearson, 1984; Marshall, 1990; Schallert, 1982). Consider a how a young reader might use her schemata as she reads a Sherlock Holmes novel: ⇒ Helen finds an old book on her parents’ books shelf, the title is “The Treasury of Sherlock Holmes” by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. She recognizes that the name of the Author and Sherlock Holmes are associated with mystery novels. Because she has a schema for how mystery novels are organized, she begins looking for specific types of information as she begins reading the first story: a descriptions of the characters, the mystery they face as well as information that may turn out to...
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