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Unformatted text preview: hese scripts with repeated experiences with various categories of
social interactions. Scripts influence our expectations and guide our actions in many
situations. For instance students may have a one script that guides their actions on the
play ground, another that represents their experience at lunch, a script that is activated for Manuscript 9/28/03 15 regular class, and another script that guides their behavior when they have a substitute
teacher. How might an understanding of scripts explain Judy Forester’s experience in her
⇒ For most of my students this is their first real art class, and they really don’t
know what to expect. To help them adjust, I take the first few class periods
doing simple art exercises, so they can get used to the materials and routines
of the class, before they begin work on any complicated projects.
A third important type of schema is the text schema. Text schema store
information about the different types of organizing structures that appear in text (Gagne,
Yekovich, and Yekovich, 1993). The knowledge of the structure of texts improves our
ability to comprehend and recall what we have read (Bartlett, 1932 and Meyer, 1975).
Text schema may be organized into two broad categories, narrative (or stories) or
expository text (McNeil, 1987). Children seem to be more naturally adept at
comprehending stories, possible because stories are such a natural way for people to
communicate. However much of the texts students are required to read in school fall into
the expository category, and students comprehension of these text can be improved by
providing some explicit instruction about this type of text is organization. Helen Kruger
applies this idea in her Geography class.
⇒ Many of my seventh graders are actually very good readers but they still have
trouble with our geography textbook. I take some time at the beginning of the
year and teach them how to use the textbook’s headings and subheadings to
create an outline of the information in the text. It seems to help the students
remember and understand what they have read. Manuscript 9/28/03 16 Schemata influence several key learning processes. They allow us to recognize
when something is or is not an example of an object of event, and allow us to make
inferences when we are supplied with incomplete information. They also can affect
where we focus attention and how we store information in memory (Anderson &
Pearson, 1984; Marshall, 1990; Schallert, 1982). Consider a how a young reader might
use her schemata as she reads a Sherlock Holmes novel:
⇒ Helen finds an old book on her parents’ books shelf, the title is “The Treasury
of Sherlock Holmes” by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. She recognizes that the
name of the Author and Sherlock Holmes are associated with mystery novels.
Because she has a schema for how mystery novels are organized, she begins
looking for specific types of information as she begins reading the first story:
a descriptions of the characters, the mystery they face as well as information
that may turn out to...
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- Spring '08