Students knowledge about the nature and limitations

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Unformatted text preview: out learning, and their ability to use that knowledge to self-regulate their learning (Duell, 1986, Schneider, 1998) As is implied by this definition metacognition requires both declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge. Students’ knowledge about the nature and limitations of their memory, the memory requirements of certain tasks, and strategies for learning and remembering information are stored as declarative knowledge. Students’ ability to set goals and to automatically monitor progress relative to these goals is represented as procedural knowledge. Students who self-regulate their learning are taking an active role in guiding and controlling their own learning. Self regulation involves setting appropriate Manuscript 9/28/03 32 goals, selecting effective learning approaches for those goals, and monitoring progress toward these goal. The goal of helping your students to become “life-long learners” means helping your students develop their metacognitive knowledge so they can be active in their own learning. We will have more to say about metacognition in later chapters. Review and Practice. The third and final guideline is that when students are encouraged to review and practice what they have learned the information tends to be remembered longer and better. This finding has emerged for both declarative and procedural knowledge. For example, in the case of procedural knowledge, there is a predictable relationship between the amount of practice a person has had with a skill and the proficiency or fluency with which they are able to perform the skill. Increased practice leads to increased fluency with the skill. This observation has been called the power law of practice, and it has been observed for a wide variety of skills (Haberlandt, 1997). Distributed practice or the spacing effect are two concepts related to the effectiveness of review and practice. Students are more likely to remember material if the opportunities to encode that material are distributed over time. Reviewing material that was studied previously improves the quantity and quality of what students remember (Dempster, 1991). The importance of review and practice implies that you should incorporating activities that encourage students to review and practice what they have learned should be a regular part of your lesson planning. Encoding and retrieval of declarative knowledge. Declarative knowledge is more likely to be understood and remembered if it is meaningful to the learner. Information can be made more meaningful at encoding in two Manuscript 9/28/03 33 ways. First the meaning of new information may be expanded by the process of elaboration. Elaboration is defined as the association of new information with knowledge already stored in long-term memory. Referring to the declarative knowledge network model of memory (see Figure 3.3), elaboration is adding new chunks of knowledge to the net by making connections between the new knowledge and knowledge already stored in memory. For instance a st...
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