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Unformatted text preview: at the front door, the
door is locked, and you’ve found your keys,
Action 3: Then unlock the door and enter the house. The activation of each production leads to a change in the perceived conditions,
which then results in the activation of the next production. The activation of a production
system results in a chain of discrete actions that run in a smooth and relatively automatic
way until the main goal is achieved or a new goal is established.
A Comparison of Declarative and Procedural Knowledge
Both declarative and procedural knowledge are important for success in any
endeavor. For example, teachers need both theory and applications to succeed in the
classroom. Table 3.1 (Table 3.1 appears at the end of the chapter) compares and contrasts
declarative and procedural knowledge. As you can see, while the units of knowledge are
different, both declarative and procedural knowledge may be organized in to more
complex cognitive structures. Each type of representation has its own advantages and
disadvantages. Declarative knowledge is learned quickly and is flexible, allowing people
to understand and adapt to new situations. Procedural knowledge allows people to Manuscript 9/28/03 19 respond efficiently and automatically to situations they repeatedly encounter. Procedural
knowledge takes longer to acquire, but once learned is less likely to be forgotten.
An Information Processing Model
The information processing models are designed to explain how declarative and
procedural knowledge is acquired and how knowledge influence subsequent learning and
performance. These models describe human thinking and memory in terms of mental
structures and basic cognitive processes. The structures are memory stores where
information or knowledge is held. Each memory store is unique in terms of: • the way information is stored
• the capacity, or amount of information that may be stored at one time
• the duration, or the amount of time the information is retained in the memory
The basic cognitive processes are those mental activities used to manipulate
information within a memory store, and to move information from one memory store to
another. It is important to note that information processing models are tools to help us
understand and predict how people learn, and are not meant to describe the anatomy of
the brain. Figure 3.4 (Figure 3.4 appears at the end of the chapter) provides a schematic
overview of the information processing model we will use to guide the discussions in this
chapter. In the subsequent sections, we will discuss each structure and the relevant mental
processes for that structure in sequence.
Sensory Register Manuscript 9/28/03 20 Information first enters the information-processing model in the form of
sensations from our various sense organs (i.e. eyes, ears, nose etc.). These sensations are
transferred to the particular sensory register that is specialized for that type of sensory
information (e. g. sensory register for vision or hearing). A sensory register is a large
capacity store where all sensations are held briefly. The duration of a sensor...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.
- Spring '08