The black dots represents propositions for a category

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Unformatted text preview: Rocky is is • Small are Small • Rocky Venus are Earth Rocky Inner Planets • Mars is • • Examples are Mercury • is • Small is • is Small Rocky The propositions formed around gray dots represent information from the student’s memory. The black dots represents propositions for a category that is then connected to old propositions. Manuscript 9/28/03 49 C h a p ter 3 T a b les Table 3.1. Comparison of Declarative and Procedural Knowledge Types of Knowledge Declarative Knowledge Procedural Knowledge Chunks (Propositions, Productions Images and Sequences) (Condition/Action Pairs) Integration Schema/Network Production System Application Flexible: can be used in a Use Specific: used in limited variety of contexts contexts. Inefficient: Behavior Efficient: Behavior is Characteristics Basic Unit Effects on Behavior requires conscious control, is automatic (does not required slow and prone to errors conscious control) is fast and has few errors. Learning Fast: New chunks can be Slow: Acquiring new acquired relatively quickly. productions often requires the effort of many trials Forgetting May be forgotten quickly Relatively slow to forget Manuscript 9/28/03 50 Table 3.2. Elaboration Examples. The acronym TACE is useful for understanding the types of thought processes involved in elaboration. TACE stands for Transform, Apply, Connect, Extend. Here are some examples of TACE. Transform Have students summarize text they have just read in the form of a chart. Have students put ideas and concepts into their own words. Apply Have students make use of information they just learned to solve a problem. Have students teach what they have learned to someone else. Connect Have students compare and contrast ideas they are learning. Have students create maps that show the relationships among ideas they have been studying. Extend Have students think of new examples of concepts they have just learned. Have students think of questions they would like to ask the author of something they just read. Manuscript 9/28/03 51 Table 3.3 Looking Ahead: Cognitive (Information-processing) Learning Theory Principles and Decision-Making Principle 3.1: Meaningful learning occurs when new knowledge is connected to existing knowledge. Decision Area Planning Assessment Implications For Practice Teachers should help students make meaningful connections by cueing retrieval of relevant information from their long-term memory and by encouraging and assisting students to elaborate and organize new information Meaningful assessment of instructional effectiveness requires alignment between content and processes of assessment tasks with those of the learning tasks. Looking Ahead Chapters 7, 8, 9 Chapter 14 Principle 3.2: Effective instruction encourages learners to coordinate their various basic mental processes. Decision Area Planning Teaching and Classroom Managemen t Implications For Practice When planning lessons teachers should consider how the elements of the lesson affect attention, retrieval, encoding and compilation. Teacher should develop and apply communications skills and skills with media that help students direct the selective perception processes, retrieve relevant knowledge from long-term memory, and elaborate and organize new information. Looking Ahead Chapters 7, 8, 9 Chapter 9 Manuscript 9/28/03 52 Principle 3.3: The limitations of students’ working memory must be accounted for in instruction. Decision Area Planning Implications For Practice Teachers should be sensitive to limitations in learners’ ability to process information when making decisions about how many new concepts to cover in a lesson. Looking Ahead Chapters 7, 8, 9 Principle 3.4: Learning is an active, goal-directed process Decision Area Planning Implications For Practice When planning lessons teachers should include activities that encourage students to set appropriate goals. Looking Ahead Chapter 8 Manuscript 9/28/03 53...
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