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Unformatted text preview: Rocky is is • Small
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Rocky The propositions formed around gray dots represent information from the
student’s memory. The black dots represents propositions for a category that is then
connected to old propositions. Manuscript 9/28/03 49 C h a p ter 3 T a b les
Table 3.1. Comparison of Declarative and Procedural Knowledge
Types of Knowledge
Declarative Knowledge Procedural Knowledge Chunks (Propositions, Productions Images and Sequences) (Condition/Action Pairs) Integration Schema/Network Production System Application Flexible: can be used in a Use Specific: used in limited variety of contexts contexts. Inefficient: Behavior Efficient: Behavior is Characteristics
Basic Unit Effects on Behavior requires conscious control, is automatic (does not required
slow and prone to errors conscious control) is fast and
has few errors. Learning Fast: New chunks can be Slow: Acquiring new acquired relatively quickly. productions often requires
the effort of many trials Forgetting May be forgotten quickly Relatively slow to forget Manuscript 9/28/03 50 Table 3.2. Elaboration Examples.
The acronym TACE is useful for understanding the types of thought processes
involved in elaboration. TACE stands for Transform, Apply, Connect, Extend. Here
are some examples of TACE.
Have students summarize text they have just read in the form of a chart.
Have students put ideas and concepts into their own words.
Have students make use of information they just learned to solve a problem.
Have students teach what they have learned to someone else.
Have students compare and contrast ideas they are learning.
Have students create maps that show the relationships among ideas they have
Have students think of new examples of concepts they have just learned.
Have students think of questions they would like to ask the author of something
they just read. Manuscript 9/28/03 51 Table 3.3 Looking Ahead: Cognitive (Information-processing) Learning Theory
Principles and Decision-Making
Principle 3.1: Meaningful learning occurs when new knowledge is connected
to existing knowledge.
Planning Assessment Implications For Practice
Teachers should help students make meaningful
connections by cueing retrieval of relevant information
from their long-term memory and by encouraging and
assisting students to elaborate and organize new
Meaningful assessment of instructional effectiveness
requires alignment between content and processes of
assessment tasks with those of the learning tasks. Looking
8, 9 Chapter 14 Principle 3.2: Effective instruction encourages learners to coordinate their
various basic mental processes.
t Implications For Practice
When planning lessons teachers should consider how the
elements of the lesson affect attention, retrieval,
encoding and compilation.
Teacher should develop and apply communications skills
and skills with media that help students direct the
selective perception processes, retrieve relevant
knowledge from long-term memory, and elaborate and
organize new information. Looking
Chapter 9 Manuscript 9/28/03 52 Principle 3.3: The limitations of students’ working memory must be
accounted for in instruction.
Planning Implications For Practice
Teachers should be sensitive to limitations in learners’
ability to process information when making decisions
about how many new concepts to cover in a lesson. Looking
8, 9 Principle 3.4: Learning is an active, goal-directed process
Planning Implications For Practice
When planning lessons teachers should include activities
that encourage students to set appropriate goals. Looking
Chapter 8 Manuscript 9/28/03 53...
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- Spring '08