Chapter 3

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Unformatted text preview: learners’ metacognitive abilities and dispositions. Principles into Practice: Looking in on Sheila Gutierrez and Charles Elliot An examination of the experiences of Sheila Gutierrez an Charles Elliot demonstrate how these principles might guide decision making in the classroom. We will now review these two cases and examine their decisions from the perspective of specific learning principles developed in this chapter. Looking Ahead: Cognitive Learning Principles and Decision-Making One of the themes of this book is that teachers’ decisions-making is improved through the application of principles from psychological theory. In Chapter 1 we identified three broad categories of teacher decisions that provide opportunities to apply psychological principles: • Decisions made when planning a lesson • Decision made when teaching and managing in the classroom and • Decisions made when assessing the effectiveness of their actions. In later Chapters, the principles developed in this chapter are used to organize discussions of applications of information processing theory to these three types of decisions. Table 3.3 (Figure 3.3 appears at the end of the chapter) allows you to look forward and see the implications of these principles for the types of decision-making discussed in those later chapters. Manuscript 9/28/03 44 Figures Chapter 3 Figure 3.1 Three types of chunks for representing declarative knowledge String Type of Temporal Image Proposition (time) Meaningful information relationships among Spatial relationships relationships among preserved events, the order in among objects words, which things occur. ideas and concepts S qu are • is C h e c k e re d Example Figure 3.2. A Prepositional Network for the sentence, “The quick red fox jumped over the lazy brown dog.” Quick is Red • • Fox Lazy • • is Dog • Brown Jumped Over Manuscript 9/28/03 45 Figure 3.3 Network model of long-term declarative memory is Automobile is has causes Action Exhaust Motion Vehicle Rocket causes has Reaction is has is Thrust is are Polution is is Toy Force Particles Firework have Affects Mass Acceleration Affects * * ** ** Manuscript 9/28/03 46 Figure 3.4. An Information Processing Model Long-term Memory Rehearsal Sensory Register Selective Perception Processes Working Memory Declarative Procedural Memory Memory Retrieval Encoding Compilation Consciously Controlled Action Automatic Action Manuscript 9/28/03 47 Figure 3.5. Elaboration: connecting new ideas with ideas already stored in memory. Closer • Than is • Hotter is Earth • Electric Heater • • Venus Sun is Hot • • is The propositions formed around gray dots represent information from the student’s memory. Propositions formed around white dots represent knowledge constructed from new information. The black dots represents new propositions created by combining new and old information. Manuscript 9/28/03 48 Figure 3.6 Organization: Placing information stored in memory into categories is Small Rocky • is • ...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.

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