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While she was unfamiliar with the term hansom she

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Unformatted text preview: be important clues. A passage early in the story has Holmes and Watson taking a Hansom to the scene of a crime. While she was unfamiliar with the term, “Hansom” she infers from the context of the sentence that it is some type of transportation. She knows from watching Sherlock Holmes on television that he frequently travels in horse drawn cabs, and conjures an image of such a cab clattering down foggy cobblestone streets. Helen’s recognition of the names of the main character and the author, cause her to activate her schema for mystery stories. Her schema causes her to focus on specific details of the story that experience has told her will be important to understanding the plot and solving the mystery, and her schema for Sherlock Holmes’ world (19th century Manuscript 9/28/03 17 London) allows her to decipher new words and to enrich her understanding and experience of the story. Schema abstraction is a natural process and has been observed in children as young as three years of age (Loewenstein and Gentner, 2001). However, the process needs to be supported by teacher actions. When presenting new concepts or activities you can help your students develop accurate schemata by pointing out similarities and differences, or by explaining relationships among the elements of experienced objects and events. Declarative knowledge networks. ACT theory proposes that chunks of declarative knowledge is stored in memory as declarative knowledge networks (Anderson, 1983 and 1993). A declarative knowledge network is a model of how information is stored in memory. Chunks of declarative knowledge are represented as nodes connected by associations to form a network of temporal strings, images and propositions. Figure 3.3 (Figure 3.3 appears at the end of the chapter) is an example of how a part of a student’s declarative knowledge of a science topic might be modeled as a network. The chunks of declarative knowledge (propositions, images and sequences) are connected by lines that represent associations among the chunks. Given this model of the knowledge stored in a person’s memory, learning can be represented as adding a new chunk to the net, adding a new association between chunks of information or changing the nature or strength of an association. Interconnections Among Procedural Knowledge. Units of procedural knowledge may be organized into complex sequences of actions called production systems. Production systems contain a series of productions that fire sequentially to Manuscript 9/28/03 18 complete a complicated action. The results of the first production in the series acts as the conditions for the next production. Consider the following example: Condition 1: If your goal is to enter yor house, your are at the front door, Action 1: Then try to open the front door. Condition 2: If your goal is to enter yor house, your are at the front door, and the door is locked, Action 2: Set the goal to find your keys and look for your keys Condition 3: If your goal is to enter yor house, your are...
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