E declarative and procedural knowledge although

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Unformatted text preview: hould help their students to make associations between what they are learning and what they already know, and to organize what they know into appropriate categories. Teachers should also be aware of the need for students to organize across types of knowledge representations (i.e. declarative and procedural knowledge). Although procedural knowledge and declarative knowledge may be represented separately, students will be able to maximize the benefit of their learning if teachers find ways of helping students connect their declarative and procedural knowledge. For example, understanding math principles may help students better determine when to use a math procedure. Compilation Students performance of skills is enhanced if they form appropriate procedural knowledge representations of those skills. The way skills are represented is affected by the conditions under which the skill is practiced and the type of feedback provided during practice. When teaching a skill, you must be sure the students must understand the goal of the skill, what information or materials are required to perform the skill as well as the Manuscript 9/28/03 42 specific actions comprising the skill. As they practice you should carefully observe their performance, and provide them information about what they are doing correctly, where they are making mistakes, and how to correct their mistakes and improve their performance. When ever possible you should vary the context in which the skill is practiced. Principle 3.3: The limitations of students’ working memory need to be accounted for in instruction. The concept of working memory has many implications for teaching. The limited capacity of working memory will influence your decisions about the rate at which new information is presented to the students, how much time you will allow for the completion of in-class assignments or tests and the degree of complexity of your lessons, labs, projects or other learning activities you plan. In addition you may wish to take the time to teach your students content-appropriate strategies for managing their working memory, such as note taking or mnemonic techniques. Principle 3.4: Learning is an active and goal-directed process Successful encoding and retrieval depend to a great extent on aligning these processes with the intended learning goals. Teachers may improve the learning of their students by helping them identify the appropriate learning goals, and by providing learning experiences that will help students reach those learning goals. Students should also be asked to take an active role in their own learning. Teachers should help students develop the knowledge, dispositions and skills necessary to self-regulate their own learning. The development of students’ metacognitive abilities is an important educational goals. Teaching students to set appropriate goals, how and Manuscript 9/28/03 43 when to apply specific learning strategies to reach those goals, and to monitor their progress toward their goals are all actions that advance...
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