Unformatted text preview: hould help their students to make associations between what they
are learning and what they already know, and to organize what they know into
Teachers should also be aware of the need for students to organize across types of
knowledge representations (i.e. declarative and procedural knowledge). Although
procedural knowledge and declarative knowledge may be represented separately, students
will be able to maximize the benefit of their learning if teachers find ways of helping
students connect their declarative and procedural knowledge. For example, understanding
math principles may help students better determine when to use a math procedure.
Students performance of skills is enhanced if they form appropriate procedural
knowledge representations of those skills. The way skills are represented is affected by
the conditions under which the skill is practiced and the type of feedback provided during
practice. When teaching a skill, you must be sure the students must understand the goal
of the skill, what information or materials are required to perform the skill as well as the Manuscript 9/28/03 42 specific actions comprising the skill. As they practice you should carefully observe their
performance, and provide them information about what they are doing correctly, where
they are making mistakes, and how to correct their mistakes and improve their
performance. When ever possible you should vary the context in which the skill is
Principle 3.3: The limitations of students’ working memory need to be accounted
for in instruction.
The concept of working memory has many implications for teaching. The limited
capacity of working memory will influence your decisions about the rate at which new
information is presented to the students, how much time you will allow for the
completion of in-class assignments or tests and the degree of complexity of your lessons,
labs, projects or other learning activities you plan. In addition you may wish to take the
time to teach your students content-appropriate strategies for managing their working
memory, such as note taking or mnemonic techniques.
Principle 3.4: Learning is an active and goal-directed process
Successful encoding and retrieval depend to a great extent on aligning these
processes with the intended learning goals. Teachers may improve the learning of their
students by helping them identify the appropriate learning goals, and by providing
learning experiences that will help students reach those learning goals.
Students should also be asked to take an active role in their own learning.
Teachers should help students develop the knowledge, dispositions and skills necessary
to self-regulate their own learning. The development of students’ metacognitive abilities
is an important educational goals. Teaching students to set appropriate goals, how and Manuscript 9/28/03 43 when to apply specific learning strategies to reach those goals, and to monitor their
progress toward their goals are all actions that advance...
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- Spring '08
- Cognitive Psychology, declarative knowledge, Declarative and Procedural Knowledge