Unformatted text preview: ognitive theory is no exception to this. In 1993, Bandura wrote, “A major
goal of formal education should be to equip students with the intellectual tools,
self-beliefs and self-regulatory capabilities to educate themselves throughout their
lifetime” (p. 136).
Social Cognitive Definition of Self-Regulated Learning 30 Learners who are effective at self-regulating their own learning processes
tend to achieve better than students who are not (Biemiller & Meichenbaum,
1992; Meichenbaum & Bielmiller, 1998). From a social cognitive perspective,
learners self-regulate through these three activities.
• Learners set challenging but achievable goals for themselves
(Intention and Foresight) (Bandura, 1989; Schunk, 1990). • Learners select and employ effective strategies to achieve their
goals (Intention and foresight) (Zimmerman, 1989) • Learners employ self-regulation strategies such as self-observation,
self-judgment and self-administered consequences to motivate and
guide their learning (Self-reactiveness and self-reflectiveness)
(Bandura, 1977; Bandura & Cervone, 1983). An important determining factor in learners’ ability to engage in these selfregulation activities is their self-efficacy (Grusec, 1992; Zimmerman, 1999). Selfregulatory efficacy refers to students’ beliefs that they can engage in the behaviors
necessary to self-manage their learning.
As we noted earlier in the chapter, self-efficacy is learners’ personal sense
that they can have some control over experiences that affect them (Bandura, 1977,
1995, 1997; Bong & Skaalvik, 2003; Zimmerman, 2000). In classrooms, selfefficacy involves learners’ personal assessment of their ability to succeed at 31 academic tasks. Self-efficacy, along with learners’ ability to set goals have been
found to be two key motivational variables in achievement (Zimmerman,
Bandura, & Martinez-Pons, 1992).
Sources for determining self-efficacy. Learners’ self-efficacy beliefs
develop from their own direct experiences with success and fail...
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