Unformatted text preview: ndings through modeling. Table 4.1 provides a summary
and comparison of these modeling effects.
(Insert Table 4.1 About Here.)
Variables that Influence the Success of Modeling
As you can see from Table 4.2, the success of modeling is influenced by
the characteristics of the model, the characteristics of the learner, and the 24 characteristics of the modeled behavior (Druckman & Bjork, 1991; Ferrari, 1996).
Even though we will discuss these categories separately, social cognitive theorists
believe that these variables mutually influence each other. For example, if I have
a high level of self-efficacy, I may be willing to try harder behaviors, and
succeeding at these harder behaviors can elevate my self-efficacy.
(Insert Table 4.2 About Here.)
Characteristics of the model. Learners are likely to attend to models that
appear to have competence, power, and/or prestige (Bandura, 1971, 1986; Sasso
& Rude, 1987; Schunk, 1987). In part, this is because these models have achieved
some success through their behaviors. Interestingly, learners’ perceptions of
models’ prestige can often extend beyond their areas of demonstrated competence
(Rosenthal & Bandura, 1978). For example, young children may think that their
parents can do anything.
Model similarity is another important model characteristic, especially for
helping learners judge the appropriateness of a behavior and for helping learners
develop certain belief systems (Schunk, 1987). For example, young boys and girls
may look to their peers to determine if their behavior is age and/or gender
Important self-belief systems such as self-efficacy are also influenced by
exposure to peers of similar age and competency level (Brown & Inouye, 1978). 25 This idea is reflected in the distinctions made between coping and mastery models
(Thelen, Fry, Fehrenbach & Frautschi, 1979).
A mastery model is one who performs a behavior flawlessly and with
great confidence. A mastery model can demonstrate how a performance can be
done eventually. For example, a master teacher can show beginning teachers what
very skilled tea...
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