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2 the success of modeling is influenced by the

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Unformatted text preview: ndings through modeling. Table 4.1 provides a summary and comparison of these modeling effects. (Insert Table 4.1 About Here.) Variables that Influence the Success of Modeling As you can see from Table 4.2, the success of modeling is influenced by the characteristics of the model, the characteristics of the learner, and the 24 characteristics of the modeled behavior (Druckman & Bjork, 1991; Ferrari, 1996). Even though we will discuss these categories separately, social cognitive theorists believe that these variables mutually influence each other. For example, if I have a high level of self-efficacy, I may be willing to try harder behaviors, and succeeding at these harder behaviors can elevate my self-efficacy. (Insert Table 4.2 About Here.) Characteristics of the model. Learners are likely to attend to models that appear to have competence, power, and/or prestige (Bandura, 1971, 1986; Sasso & Rude, 1987; Schunk, 1987). In part, this is because these models have achieved some success through their behaviors. Interestingly, learners’ perceptions of models’ prestige can often extend beyond their areas of demonstrated competence (Rosenthal & Bandura, 1978). For example, young children may think that their parents can do anything. Model similarity is another important model characteristic, especially for helping learners judge the appropriateness of a behavior and for helping learners develop certain belief systems (Schunk, 1987). For example, young boys and girls may look to their peers to determine if their behavior is age and/or gender appropriate. Important self-belief systems such as self-efficacy are also influenced by exposure to peers of similar age and competency level (Brown & Inouye, 1978). 25 This idea is reflected in the distinctions made between coping and mastery models (Thelen, Fry, Fehrenbach & Frautschi, 1979). A mastery model is one who performs a behavior flawlessly and with great confidence. A mastery model can demonstrate how a performance can be done eventually. For example, a master teacher can show beginning teachers what very skilled tea...
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