Unformatted text preview: works hard at her job because she believes that if she works hard she will
get raises and a promotion. This is an example of the effects of ____________on
4. What are the three criteria for effective motivational goals?
same How would reciprocal determinism explain how two children from the 50 family might have quite different experiences growing up in their family?
2. Even though there are potential vicarious learning effects, why might
teachers want to be reluctant to punish students in front of their classmates?
3. How might teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs affect their teaching?
Decision-Making Activities 1. Assume that you have a student in class who has trouble paying attention when
you are explaining things to your class. How would you use the self-regulation
ideas in this chapter to help this student be better at paying attention?
2. Think about your ideal teaching job. How would observational learning
through modeling be useful in that teaching job?
Answers to Alternative Response Items
1. c 6. a 2. b 7. d 3. a 8. a 4. c 9. a 5. d 10. b
Answers to Short Answer/Completion Items 1. reciprocal determinism 51 2. forethought
3. outcome expectations
4. specific, proximal and challenging at an appropriate level
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual
Of Psychology, 52 (1), 1-26.
Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and
functioning. Educational Psychologist, 38, 117-148.
Johnson, L. R. & Johnson, C. E. (March/April, 1999). Teaching students to
Regulate their own behavior. Teaching Exceptional Children, 6-10.
Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Self-efficacy: An essential motive to learn.
Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 82-91. 52 Figure 4.1. Reciprocal determinism. Person Behavior Environment 53 Table 4.1. A comparison of modeling effects.
Modeling Effect Learning or Nature of the Performance Example Influence Effect
Observational Learning lines by observing acquired. an older sibling. The inhibitions for...
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