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Unformatted text preview: e successful, learners need to possess appropriate learning strategies,
and they need to apply them when it would be useful. We have referred to these
types of activities previously as metacognitive activities. It is insufficient to teach
learners how to study and learn, unless teachers also help them develop the beliefs
that strategies will help them, and the understanding of when to use particular
strategies. For example, Rebok and Balcerak (1989) taught elderly adults to use a
memory strategy called a mnemonic to help their memory performance. Although
the mnemonic helped, the training did not necessarily create a sense of memory
efficacy, which was defined as the belief that memory can be improved. As a
result, only 39% of the adults who were trained generalized the strategy to other
settings. Learners need both knowledge of strategies and a sense that they can
improve their performance. We will revisit strategic learning in Chapter 8.
Self-regulation involves self-observation, self-judgment and self- administered consequences (Bandura, 1971, 1986). Self-observation includes
activities designed to help learners develop an awareness of their own behavior by
observing it. Self-judgment is when learners assess their behavior in terms of its
functional value and its relationship to the learners’ goals. For example, students
might pick what they consider to be their best artwork for a student show. Selfadministered consequences are reinforcements and punishments that learners
administer to themselves. Typically, learners also determine when they have met 38 the criteria for these consequences. These three activities have been translated into
three intervention approaches: self-monitoring, self-reinforcement, and selfinstructional programs.
Self-monitoring involves procedures that require learners to observe and
record their own behavior systematically (Kanfer & Goldstein, 1982; Kazdin,
1982; Mace, Belfiore, & Hutchinson, 2001; Reid, 1996). Typically learners are
asked to make a mark on a recording form every time a behavior occurs, or
answer questions about their behavior, or complete a checklist. For example, a
shy learner might put a mark on the card every time she participates in class, or
she might answer a series of yes/no questions about how she participated in clas...
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- Spring '08