For example it would be very difficult to 11 learn to

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Unformatted text preview: so suggested that they provide a poor explanation for how new and complicated behaviors are learned. For example, it would be very difficult to 11 learn to speak if we could only produce words that we had been reinforced for using (Bandura, 1977). Second, Bandura differed with the behaviorists in terms of an explanation for how consequences operate. He rejected the radical behavioral idea that consequences affect behavior “automatically without conscious involvement” (Bandura, 1977, p. 19). According to Bandura, consequences affect behaviors because they create expectations for the future. Because of our ability to represent experiences symbolically, we can develop the expectation that the same behavior will produce similar outcomes in the future (Bandura, 1986). Consequences, therefore, provide information that learners can use to guide and self-regulate their future behavior. For example, a young child may have learned that if he whines about taking a bath, he will get in trouble. He uses this information to determine what he will do at bath time in the future. Third, Bandura broadened the view of how consequences can be experienced by learners. He agreed that people’s behavior could be influenced by direct experience with environmental consequences. He also suggested, however, that consequences can be experienced vicariously, and they can be selfadministered. Vicarious consequences refer to changes in learners’ behaviors that result from observing the reinforcement or punishment that a model receives for the modeled behaviors. For example, a junior high school student observes that a peer receives a lot of attention for dressing a certain way. The student 12 decides to dress that same way. In another situation, a young child sees a brother get in trouble for behaving a certain way, and decides not to behave that way. Vicarious consequences are observed and interpreted rather than being experienced directly by the learner. Here are some ideas for using vicarious reinforcement in your classroom. • Develop ways of publicly recognizing good student efforts as both a direct...
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