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For example self efficacy will influence their

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Unformatted text preview: 1986). For instance, student teachers are likely to pay close attention to what their supervising teachers do and say. Learners’ self-efficacy beliefs and their outcome expectations will also affect their ability to profit from modeling. For example, self-efficacy will influence their beliefs about the likelihood that they can succeed at the modeled behavior (Schunk, 2000) Outcome expectations are learners’ beliefs about the possible outcomes for engaging in a behavior. Learners are more likely to learn and/or engage in behaviors that will help them achieve desired outcomes. For example, a learner may believe that if he can learn to use a particular strategy, it 27 will help her read better. If this is a desired outcome, the learner is more likely to engage in the learning process. Characteristics of the modeled behavior. Some modeling stimuli are more complex than others. Also, learners will differ in terms of how familiar they are with the information conveyed by the model. Both of these factors will influence the outcomes of modeling. In general, complex and unfamiliar behaviors are harder to learn. You may find that you need to do a number of things to assist your learners in those situations. You may need to provide more guidance and practice time for the learner; you may need to break the modeling stimulus down into more manageable parts; and/or you may need to slow down the pace of the lesson. Learners are more likely to learn and/or perform behaviors that have functional value (Bandura, 1971; Schunk, 2001). Functional value means that the modeled behavior is clearly linked to positive outcomes for the model. The learner anticipates that the behavior will have the same consequences for them. Consider this example. ⇒ John has learned that students who act up in class get a lot of positive attention from other students, and the teacher doesn’t seem to stop them. He starts acting up also. You want your students to be aware of the functional value of appropriate behaviors. For example, if you only attend to misbehaviors, students may observe 28 that the only way to earn your attention is...
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