Unformatted text preview: 1986). For instance, student
teachers are likely to pay close attention to what their supervising teachers do and
Learners’ self-efficacy beliefs and their outcome expectations will also
affect their ability to profit from modeling. For example, self-efficacy will
influence their beliefs about the likelihood that they can succeed at the modeled
behavior (Schunk, 2000) Outcome expectations are learners’ beliefs about the
possible outcomes for engaging in a behavior. Learners are more likely to learn
and/or engage in behaviors that will help them achieve desired outcomes. For
example, a learner may believe that if he can learn to use a particular strategy, it 27 will help her read better. If this is a desired outcome, the learner is more likely to
engage in the learning process.
Characteristics of the modeled behavior. Some modeling stimuli are
more complex than others. Also, learners will differ in terms of how familiar they
are with the information conveyed by the model. Both of these factors will
influence the outcomes of modeling. In general, complex and unfamiliar
behaviors are harder to learn. You may find that you need to do a number of
things to assist your learners in those situations. You may need to provide more
guidance and practice time for the learner; you may need to break the modeling
stimulus down into more manageable parts; and/or you may need to slow down
the pace of the lesson.
Learners are more likely to learn and/or perform behaviors that have
functional value (Bandura, 1971; Schunk, 2001). Functional value means that the
modeled behavior is clearly linked to positive outcomes for the model. The
learner anticipates that the behavior will have the same consequences for them.
Consider this example.
⇒ John has learned that students who act up in class get a lot of positive
attention from other students, and the teacher doesn’t seem to stop them.
He starts acting up also.
You want your students to be aware of the functional value of appropriate
behaviors. For example, if you only attend to misbehaviors, students may observe 28 that the only way to earn your attention is...
View Full Document