Unformatted text preview: incentive for the students who did the work, and a
vicarious incentive for others who observe the recognition. For
example, you might post good student work on a bulletin board. In
doing this, be sensitive to personal and developmental issues. For
example, for some adolescents, the risk of embarrassing them
might outweigh the potential vicarious and direct benefits of public
recognition. • Arrange to have successful former students return to discuss what
they are doing or have done to be successful. Consequences can also be self-administered. Bandura (1977, 1986)
suggested that learners internalize their experiences with environmental
consequences. As a result, they establish personal standards, self-evaluate their
progress toward meeting those standards, and administer self-reinforcement and
criticism. Learners, therefore, are not entirely dependent on immediate 13 environmental experiences to modify their behavior. Consider Octavio Ramirez’s
approach to learning.
⇒ “I try to study a little bit each night for about a week before a test.
Each night after I study, I have my parents ask me questions about what I
just studied. If I do well, I let myself watch television. If I don’t do well, I
go back and review what I missed.”
As we discussed earlier in the chapter, vicarious learning is learning
through the experiences of others. In describing vicarious learning, Bandura and
his associates use a specialized vocabulary. As many of their terms are not used
the way we might use them in our in day-to-day conversations, we will begin by
defining some key terminology. We will then describe the basic nature of
vicarious learning in terms of its potential effects on learners and the variables
that affect the success of modeling.
Vicarious learning occurs through the observation of models. According to
Bandura and his colleagues, “a model is any stimulus array so organized that an
observer can extract and act on the main information conveyed by environmental
events without needing to first perform o...
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