However they also demonstrate how to manage

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Unformatted text preview: ching looks like. Coping models demonstrate what people go through when they are first learning. They demonstrate less confidence than mastery models, and they make the errors or missteps common when people are first learning. However, they also demonstrate how to manage frustration and how improvement is possible with effort. For example, you may learn how to cope with the day-to-day frustrations of being a beginning teacher by watching another new teacher who has figured out how to improve. Coping models, especially those who demonstrate initial self-doubt statements and then learn or improve, are likely to have a more positive effect on learners' self-efficacy beliefs than mastery models. New learners see coping models as being more similar to them. Consequently, if coping models improve, then improvement seems possible to the learners (Schunk, 2000). Learner characteristics. Learners’ developmental status and prior experience will influence their ability to profit from modeling in a number of ways. First, young and experienced learners may have difficulty selecting and attending to the important aspects of modeling. Second, young and inexperienced 26 learners may have under-developed strategies for encoding new learning and for managing working memory load (Berk, 1996). Third, very young learners also have less capability to use verbal representational systems, which influences the speed with which they learn and also the generalizability of what they have learned (Bandura, 1971, 1977). Finally, young learners may lack the prerequisite motor and cognitive skills needed for the required learning and/or performance. This final issue became painfully obvious to one of your authors as he tried to teach his two-year-old son to pitch and catch a baseball. This parent’s enthusiasm clearly exceeded the child’s ability to reproduce the required physical behaviors. Learners’ willingness and capability to profit from modeling are also influenced by their goals. Learners are more likely to attend to modeling that helps in their progress toward their goals (Bandura,...
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