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Principle 4.1 has an important implication for classroom teaching and
classroom management. Skills, social behaviors, strategies, and attitudes in
particular are often learned directly or indirectly through modeling. Consequently,
the effective use of observational learning will be an important tool for enacting
some of your decisions about how to teach.
Principle 4.2: Learners’ Self-Belief Systems Guide their Learning and their
According to social cognitive theory, two key learner belief systems are
outcome expectations and self-efficacy. In particular students’ self-efficacy
impacts on the types and amount of effort students expend in classrooms. Chapter
6 on motivation theory will show you how other self-belief concepts from value x 44 expectancy theory can help support your understanding and application of selfefficacy. For example, you will learn how students’ motivational goals are
influenced by their expectations for success.
The major implication of Principle 4.2 for your decision-making is that we
need to consider students’ self-beliefs when we select goals and learning
experiences for our students. Whenever possible, we should try to create
classroom environments that promote a positive sense of self-efficacy among our
Principle 4.3: Learners Have the Potential to Self-Regulate their own
Bandura believes that students self-regulate by setting goals, selecting
appropriate strategies to achieve those goals, and by these self-regulation
processes: self-monitoring, self-reinforcement, and self-instruction. The application of Principle 4.3, therefore, is important for achieving the goal of
encouraging students to become self-regulating learners.
Principle 4.3 has specific implications for your decision about what to
teach. Students often need to develop self-management and learning strategies to
succeed. Our classrooms will need to be places where these strategies are
developed through our teaching and approaches to...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.
- Spring '08