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think of the stages in direct instruction as stages in gardening. Before planting a
seed, the soil must be prepared because it increases the likelihood that the seed
will grow. In the same sense, the first steps of direct instruction involve preparing 21 the learner by helping them engage in activities such as activating relevant prior
Third, students' retrieval of learned material is improved if they have
retrieval cues. Consequently, providing a mnemonic for the steps in a modeled
procedure might be very helpful. For example, students might be taught the
acronym PROWL for the steps in an approach for writing an essay question (Plan,
Read, Outline, Write, Look-over). The mnemonic gives them an additional
The production component of observational learning deals with
converting the mental representations to motor activity. For example, once
students have acquired the mental representation PROWL for writing an essay
test, they then need to put that knowledge to use. When students are practicing
what they have seen modeled, they need feedback on how they are doing. The
implication for teachers is that students will need some opportunity to practice
what they have learned with supervision.
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In some cases, the processes you are teaching through observational
learning are not readily observable. For example, a learning strategy may be
executed through a series of thought processes that cannot be observed directly. If
you are going to provide feedback to your students, you will need to make their
internal mental processes observable. You may request that they verbalize their 22 thought processes so you can provide feedback to them. For example, you might
ask students to talk through the processes they used to solve a math problem.
From a social cognitive perspective, students may learn something but
decide not to demonstrate that learning. According to Bandura (1986), this is
most likely to occur when there are few if any incentives for performing a
behavior, or if the behavior carries a high risk of punishment. T...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.
- Spring '08