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In the same sense the first steps of direct

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Unformatted text preview: achers may be asked to think of the stages in direct instruction as stages in gardening. Before planting a seed, the soil must be prepared because it increases the likelihood that the seed will grow. In the same sense, the first steps of direct instruction involve preparing 21 the learner by helping them engage in activities such as activating relevant prior knowledge. Third, students' retrieval of learned material is improved if they have retrieval cues. Consequently, providing a mnemonic for the steps in a modeled procedure might be very helpful. For example, students might be taught the acronym PROWL for the steps in an approach for writing an essay question (Plan, Read, Outline, Write, Look-over). The mnemonic gives them an additional retrieval cue. The production component of observational learning deals with converting the mental representations to motor activity. For example, once students have acquired the mental representation PROWL for writing an essay test, they then need to put that knowledge to use. When students are practicing what they have seen modeled, they need feedback on how they are doing. The implication for teachers is that students will need some opportunity to practice what they have learned with supervision. (Insert Photograph 4.2 About Here.) In some cases, the processes you are teaching through observational learning are not readily observable. For example, a learning strategy may be executed through a series of thought processes that cannot be observed directly. If you are going to provide feedback to your students, you will need to make their internal mental processes observable. You may request that they verbalize their 22 thought processes so you can provide feedback to them. For example, you might ask students to talk through the processes they used to solve a math problem. From a social cognitive perspective, students may learn something but decide not to demonstrate that learning. According to Bandura (1986), this is most likely to occur when there are few if any incentives for performing a behavior, or if the behavior carries a high risk of punishment. T...
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