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Unformatted text preview: 99; Horner, 2001; Lee, Dineen,
McKendree, & Mayes, 1999; Tripp, Herrmann, Parcel, Chamberlain, & Gritz,
Observational learning can also occur in different ways. It can occur as a
result of the intentional efforts of teachers or parents to teach new skills or
standards of behavior through modeling. For example, a biology teacher may use
the processes of observational learning to teach students how to use the scientific
method in their problem solving. Observational learning can also occur in more
incidental or unintended ways. For example, parents often worry about the new
negative behaviors that children will learn from other students at school.
One important result of observational learning can be the acquisition of
general rules or principles. Bandura uses the term abstract modeling to describe
this possibility. Through abstract modeling, learners can create a generalization or
principle that connects several related but different experiences (Bandura, 1971,
1977, 1986). This principle or generalization allows learners to produce novel
behaviors that they have not observed. Consider this example. 19 ⇒ Mary Paulson has watched several different third grade teachers’
approaches to classroom management. Her somewhat novel approach to
classroom management has developed by combining what she has seen in
ways that fit her own personal style of working with students.
Observational learning process. The process of observational learning is
defined in terms of four types of activities that need to occur in order for people to
learn through modeling. These four activities or components are attention,
retention, production, and motivation (Bahn, 2001; Bandura, 1977; Ferrari, 1996).
The introduction of a model into an environment does not guarantee that
students will learn from that model. Successful observational learning depends in
part on learners’ ability to pay attention effectively to the model. Observational
learning may be unsuccessful because learners...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.
- Spring '08