Chapter 4

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Unformatted text preview: 99; Horner, 2001; Lee, Dineen, McKendree, & Mayes, 1999; Tripp, Herrmann, Parcel, Chamberlain, & Gritz, 2000) Observational learning can also occur in different ways. It can occur as a result of the intentional efforts of teachers or parents to teach new skills or standards of behavior through modeling. For example, a biology teacher may use the processes of observational learning to teach students how to use the scientific method in their problem solving. Observational learning can also occur in more incidental or unintended ways. For example, parents often worry about the new negative behaviors that children will learn from other students at school. One important result of observational learning can be the acquisition of general rules or principles. Bandura uses the term abstract modeling to describe this possibility. Through abstract modeling, learners can create a generalization or principle that connects several related but different experiences (Bandura, 1971, 1977, 1986). This principle or generalization allows learners to produce novel behaviors that they have not observed. Consider this example. 19 ⇒ Mary Paulson has watched several different third grade teachers’ approaches to classroom management. Her somewhat novel approach to classroom management has developed by combining what she has seen in ways that fit her own personal style of working with students. Observational learning process. The process of observational learning is defined in terms of four types of activities that need to occur in order for people to learn through modeling. These four activities or components are attention, retention, production, and motivation (Bahn, 2001; Bandura, 1977; Ferrari, 1996). The introduction of a model into an environment does not guarantee that students will learn from that model. Successful observational learning depends in part on learners’ ability to pay attention effectively to the model. Observational learning may be unsuccessful because learners...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.

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