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Unformatted text preview: ironmental influences. It is helpful to remember that while you 4 are teaching and managing your students, you are also being taught and managed
by your students. We need to be aware of these mutual influences as we make our
Learners’ Social and Personal Characteristics
Bandura identifies a set of personal and social characteristics of learners
that help define the nature of key learning and teaching processes. These
characteristics include the following (Bandura, 1986, 1999, 2001).
• Learners have the capability to represent their experiences
symbolically. • Learners have the capability to learn vicariously. • Learners have the capability for self-regulate. Symbolic representation. Symbolic representation is the process of
translating experiences into mental models that guide behavior (Bandura, 1986).
As such, symbolic representation is the basic process involved in all learning.
According to Bandura (1974), learners have two representational systems, the
imaginal and the verbal system. Imaginal representation allows learners to
translate experiences into enduring mental images of those experiences. For
example, you may have a mental picture of how to change a flat tire in your
memory. The verbal representational system translates our experiences into verbal
codes. For example, you may also have the list of steps for changing a flat tire 5 stored in memory. Verbal codes are extremely important for our ability to
organize and retrieve what we have observed.
The ability to represent experiences symbolically provides learners with
the ability to use past experiences to guide current behavior. Bandura (1974,
1977) referred to this ability as delayed matching or delayed modeling. We
determine how to behave based on the knowledge and expectations that we have
stored from previous learning. We make predictions about the likely outcomes of
our behavior, and then select our behaviors accordingly. Consider this classroom
⇒ John likes students who try hard. He praise...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.
- Spring '08