Learners own direct experiences with success and

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Unformatted text preview: ure, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and their physiological reactions (Schunk, 1996; Zimmerman, 2000). Learners cognitively evaluate each of these experiences to determine its personal meaning for them. As a result, the same experience may affect different learners in different ways. Learners’ own direct experiences with success and failure are a highly influential source of information about self-efficacy because they provide personally relevant information about the likelihood of future successes and failure (Bandura, Adams & Beyer, 1977; Pajares, 2003; Wise, 2001).. There is an old saying that if all things are equal, past experience is a good predictor of future experience. Students who continually try and fail or continually try and succeed both have powerful evidence of the likelihood of future success. Vicarious experience can also influence self-efficacy. Observing the successes or failures of people who are similar to us is likely to affect our sense of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1986).. Verbal persuasion is an attempt by others to influence a person’s selfefficacy through what they say to that person. For example, you may tell a student 32 that you think she is a great math student to try to increase their sense of selfefficacy. The impact of verbal persuasion on self-efficacy depends on the believability of the verbal message (Lackey, Miller & Flanigan, 1997). Also, The effects of verbal persuasion are usually short-lived, especially if the verbal message is countered by direct experience (Schunk, 1989). For example, students who are told that they can learn may have trouble believing that message if they continue to fail. Consequently, the verbal message should be supported by success experiences students have earned through their efforts. Certain physiological responses are associated with the anticipation of success and failure (Schunk, 1996; Lackey, et al., 1997). For example, sweating, blushing, fatigue, and anxiety are often associated with the anticipation of failure. If these physiological respo...
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