Unformatted text preview: ure, vicarious
experiences, verbal persuasion, and their physiological reactions (Schunk, 1996;
Zimmerman, 2000). Learners cognitively evaluate each of these experiences to
determine its personal meaning for them. As a result, the same experience may
affect different learners in different ways.
Learners’ own direct experiences with success and failure are a highly
influential source of information about self-efficacy because they provide
personally relevant information about the likelihood of future successes and
failure (Bandura, Adams & Beyer, 1977; Pajares, 2003; Wise, 2001).. There is an
old saying that if all things are equal, past experience is a good predictor of future
experience. Students who continually try and fail or continually try and succeed
both have powerful evidence of the likelihood of future success.
Vicarious experience can also influence self-efficacy. Observing the
successes or failures of people who are similar to us is likely to affect our sense of
self-efficacy (Bandura, 1986)..
Verbal persuasion is an attempt by others to influence a person’s selfefficacy through what they say to that person. For example, you may tell a student 32 that you think she is a great math student to try to increase their sense of selfefficacy. The impact of verbal persuasion on self-efficacy depends on the
believability of the verbal message (Lackey, Miller & Flanigan, 1997). Also, The
effects of verbal persuasion are usually short-lived, especially if the verbal
message is countered by direct experience (Schunk, 1989). For example, students
who are told that they can learn may have trouble believing that message if they
continue to fail. Consequently, the verbal message should be supported by success
experiences students have earned through their efforts.
Certain physiological responses are associated with the anticipation of
success and failure (Schunk, 1996; Lackey, et al., 1997). For example, sweating,
blushing, fatigue, and anxiety are often associated with the anticipation of failure.
If these physiological respo...
View Full Document