Unformatted text preview: vertly” (Bandura & Rosenthal, 1978, p.
622). There are three types of stimulus arrays that can serve as models (Bandura,
1971). Live models are people with whom the learner has direct contact. Parents, 14 teachers, and peers would be examples of live models. Symbolic models are
pictorial models. Print and electronic media are the common ways in which
symbolic models are made available to learners. A verbal description is the third
type of model, and it consists of directions on how to perform a behavior. For
example, a teacher might prepare a poster board with the steps in long division.
This poster would be provided so that students could refer to it as a model.
Modeling is a transmission process that involves interactions between
learners and models, and that results in changes for the learners. According to
Bandura (1986, p. 47) “...modeling has always been acknowledged to be one of
the most powerful means of transmitting values, attitudes and patterns of
When Bandura categorizes types of modeling experiences, he does so in
terms of the potential effects of modeling on learners. Generally, modeling can
have either performance or learning effects. Modeling can influence learners’
decisions about what previously learned behaviors are appropriate or useful in a
situation, or it can result in new behaviors, knowledge, or dispositions for
By observing models, we can determine which behaviors are likely to be
successful, appropriate, or valued in a situation. This understanding of how to 15 behave results from one of these three modeling effects: the inhibitory effect, the
disinhibitory effect, or the facilitating effect.
Inhibitory and Disinhibitory Effect. Inhibitions are the mental
restrictions we place on our behaviors. For example, most of us would not yell
“fire” in a crowded theater. We inhibit that behavior for our own welfare and the
welfare of others. According to Bandura (1965, 1986), our inhibitions can be
strengthened or weakened by what we observe happening to others.
The inhibitory effect occurs when a modeling ex...
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