Unformatted text preview: nses occur, they provide further data to students about
the likelihood of their success. Teachers should create classroom environments
where students feel emotionally supported.
Self-efficacy effects on achievement. Our self-efficacy beliefs influence
our thought processes, our emotions, and our behaviors. More specifically,
students’ perceived self-efficacy can influence their choice of activities, the
quantity and quality of their efforts, their persistence in the face of adversity, and
their emotional responses.
Students' self-efficacy beliefs influence their choices of activities in a
number of ways. First, students tend to engage in tasks that they feel confident 33 about and to avoid tasks for which they lack confidence (Pajares & Schunk,
2002). Second, levels of self-efficacy are correlated with levels of intrinsic
interest in tasks (Zimmerman & Kitsantos, 1997, 1999). Students tend to be
interested in activities at which they can succeed, and are more likely to engage in
activities that interest them (Pajares & Schunk, 2001; Schraw, Flowerday, &
Lehman, 2001). Third, self-efficacy beliefs can influence the level of challenge
students will choose for themselves. Students with higher levels of self-efficacy
are likely to select harder goals for themselves (Pajares & Schunk, 2001;
Zimmerman, Bandura, & Martinez-Pons, 1992). Fourth, self-efficacy beliefs have
been found to be an important factor in students’ career choices (Bandura,
Barbaranelli, Caprara, & Pastorelli, 2001; Betz & Hackett, 1997; Hackett, 1995;
Panagos & Dubois, 1999; Sullivan, & Mahalik, 2000). Students are likely to
avoid course work and occupations for which their self-efficacy is low.
Self-efficacy beliefs also affect the amount and type of effort students
expend on an academic task. Students with high levels of self-efficacy are more
likely to believe that they can succeed with additional effort (Alden, 1986). Selfefficacy beliefs also influence students’ willingness to use effective learning
strategies and to discard faulty strategies that aren’t working (Linnenbrink &
Pintrich, 2003; Schunk,...
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