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Self-monitoring programs have been developed for a variety of purposes
including improving students’ on-task behavior, academic production, strategy
use, and social skills (Allsop, Santos, & Linn, 2000; Carr & Punzo, 1993; Hallahan, Lloyd, Kosiewicz, Kauffman, & Graves, 1979; Jitendra, Hoppes, &
Xin, 2000; Peterson, Young, West, & Peterson, 1999; Reid, 1996; Shimabukuro,
Prater, Jenkins, & Edelen-Smith, 1999).
Self-reinforcement programs involve four basic components (Graham,
Harris, & Reid, 1992).
• Determining the standards for earning a reward • Selecting the reinforcer to be earned • Evaluating performance 39 • Self-administering the reinforcer For example, teachers may meet with students to set classroom goals.
Students would then identify reinforcements they want to earn for meeting the
goals. When students determine they have met the goals, they reinforce
themselves. One concern that teachers have with an approach like this is that
students may not set challenging enough goals, or they may be lenient in their
self-assessments. There is some evidence that this can occur (Felixbrod &
O’Leary, 1973), so you will want to work cooperatively with students in
establishing goals and standards of performance.
Self-instructional programs involve providing students with a set of
written or verbal prompts they can use to guide their thinking and problemsolving (Bambara & Gomez, 2001; Meichenbaum & Goodman, 1971). There are
six basic forms of self-instructions that can be used in combination or in isolation
(Graham, Harris, & Reid, 1992).
• Problem Definition Instructions: For example, students may ask,
"What is my problem?” • Focusing Attention and Planning Instructions: For example,
students might tell themselves, “I need to concentrate. What
distractions need to be removed?” 40 • Strategy Instructions: Students talk themselves through the steps in a
strategy. For example, students might say, “The first step in s...
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