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Unformatted text preview: do not attend to the model at all, or
they fail to focus their attention on the key components of the modeling, or they
may not interpret the modeling appropriately (Bandura, 1971).
Students’ prior knowledge and experience level will influence where they
focus their attention. Young and inexperienced learners, for example, often have
difficulty determining where to focus attention during learning, and consequently
they may fail to focus on the critical elements of the learning situation (Broderick
& Blewitt, 2003; Maccoby & Hagan, 1965). Because of this, models often need to
include specific guidance on what is important to focus on during learning. When
you are providing the modeling, you can focus students’ attention with statements 20 such as, “The next part is really important.” When using verbal directions as a
model, you could place stars by key components or highlight them in a different
color. These alerting cues are particularly important if the modeling is complex
and/or highly unfamiliar to the learners (Bandura, 1986).
Retention involves creating and storing knowledge representations that
guide behavior. A knowledge representation might be a mental picture of how to
do something, or a set of directions that guide behavior. In order to profit from
modeling, students need to develop and retain these knowledge representations.
Consequently, many of the ideas we discussed about encoding and retrieval in
Chapter 3 are relevant here.
First, modeling can be complicated and contain multiple steps or
components. To reduce working memory load, complicated procedures may need
to be broken down into steps or components and modeled one at a time. You can
also help your learners by displaying the steps in a complicated procedure on a
poster or on an overhead so they can refer to it until they have encoded the steps.
Second, modeled events are more effectively retained if they are likened to
well-known experiences of the learner (Gerst, 1971). As you may remember from
Chapter 3, this is a form of elaboration. For example, te...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.
- Spring '08