Chapter 4

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Unformatted text preview: do not attend to the model at all, or they fail to focus their attention on the key components of the modeling, or they may not interpret the modeling appropriately (Bandura, 1971). Students’ prior knowledge and experience level will influence where they focus their attention. Young and inexperienced learners, for example, often have difficulty determining where to focus attention during learning, and consequently they may fail to focus on the critical elements of the learning situation (Broderick & Blewitt, 2003; Maccoby & Hagan, 1965). Because of this, models often need to include specific guidance on what is important to focus on during learning. When you are providing the modeling, you can focus students’ attention with statements 20 such as, “The next part is really important.” When using verbal directions as a model, you could place stars by key components or highlight them in a different color. These alerting cues are particularly important if the modeling is complex and/or highly unfamiliar to the learners (Bandura, 1986). Retention involves creating and storing knowledge representations that guide behavior. A knowledge representation might be a mental picture of how to do something, or a set of directions that guide behavior. In order to profit from modeling, students need to develop and retain these knowledge representations. Consequently, many of the ideas we discussed about encoding and retrieval in Chapter 3 are relevant here. First, modeling can be complicated and contain multiple steps or components. To reduce working memory load, complicated procedures may need to be broken down into steps or components and modeled one at a time. You can also help your learners by displaying the steps in a complicated procedure on a poster or on an overhead so they can refer to it until they have encoded the steps. Second, modeled events are more effectively retained if they are likened to well-known experiences of the learner (Gerst, 1971). As you may remember from Chapter 3, this is a form of elaboration. For example, te...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.

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