Unformatted text preview: , which is learning by observing the experiences of others.
Vicarious learning provides a useful explanation for how people often learn
complicated social behaviors from each other. For example, children may acquire
aggressive behavior by watching people in their daily lives or models in the media
act aggressively (Anderson & Bushman, 2001; Bandura, 1973). 7 The capability for self-control. From a social cognitive perspective,
people have the capabilities to be proactive, self-organizing, and self-regulating.
They are active agents in their own psychosocial development (Bandura, 1997;
1999; Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara, & Pastorelli, 2001). This potential for selfcontrol or personal agency has the following features (Bandura, 2001).
• Learners have the capability to act with intent. • Learners have the capability for forethought. • Learners have the capability for self-reactiveness. • Learners have the capability for self-reflectiveness. An intention is a representation of a future course of action, and it reflects
people’s ability to be proactive in their lives (Bandura, 2001). People can make
plans about how to behave in order to produce certain outcomes, which means
that they are active agents in their own development.
Forethought is the ability to take a future orientation by setting goals and
making plans to achieve those goals (Bandura, 1986). Forethought is an important
capability because it allows us to use potential future consequences as current
motivators of our behavior (Bandura, 1977, 2001). If we have clear, achievable
goals, then we can determine appropriate courses of action. Also, our long-term
goals may help us deal with the day-to-day frustrations that occur as we try to
meet our goals by helping us to think beyond immediate experiences. They can
also help us judge our improvement and progress. For example, as you pursue 8 your goal of becoming a master teacher, you will encounter occasional setbacks.
Perhaps you may have to reduce the number of classes you take...
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