Nutrition During Lactation-2

65kcalmlor20kcaloz lipidsinhumanmilk

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Unformatted text preview: rst milk secreted during the first few days postpartum Very high in proteins secretory IgA & lactoferrin colostrum mature breast milk Water and Energy in Human Milk Water and Energy in Human Milk • Water – Major component in human milk – Isotonic with maternal plasma • Energy – ~0.65 kcal/mL or ~20 kcal/oz Lipids in Human Milk Lipids in Human Milk • Lipids—provide ~50% of kcal – Foremilk – Hindmilk • Effect of maternal diet on fat composition – Fatty acid profile reflects dietary intake of mother DHA, Trans Fatty Acids, and Cholesterol in DHA, Human Milk • DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) • Trans fatty acids • Cholesterol Proteins in Human Milk Proteins in Human Milk • Total proteins – Lower renal solute load • Casein – Facilitates calcium absorption Proteins in Human Milk Cont’d Proteins in Human Milk Cont’d • Whey (liquid content) – – – – Immunoglobulins lactalbumin Lactoferrin enzymes • Non­protein nitrogen Milk Carbohydrates Milk Carbohydrates • Lactose – Enhances calcium absorption • Oligosaccharides – Low osmolality – Stimulate bifidus bacteria – Inhibits bacterial growth Composition of Milk Nutrient Breast Milk Cow ’s Milk Fat 55% 30% Carbohydrate 39% 58% Protein 6% 12% C o m p a r i s o n o f I n f a n t a n d A d u l t Di e t N utrient I nfant Diet Adult Diet Fat 40% <30% Protein 6% 12-15% Fat­Soluble Vitamins Fat­Soluble Vitamins in Human Milk • Vitamin A • Vitamin D • Vitamin E • Vitamin K Water­Soluble Vitamins Water­Soluble Vitamins in Human Milk • Water soluble in general – Reflects maternal intake • Vitamin B12 and folate – Bound to whey, doesn’t reflect maternal intake in short term – Low B12 seen in women who: • have hypothyroidism or latent pernicious anemia • are vegans or malnourished • have had gastric bypass Minerals in Human Milk Minerals in Human Milk • Minerals contribute to osmolality • Low sodium content limits renal solute load • Bioavailability Trace Minerals Trace Minerals in Human Milk • Zinc • Other trace minerals – Fluoride Protective Factors in Breast Milk • • • Balance Isosmotic Low protein and sodium – Low renal solute load • Whey protein – Soft digestible curds • High concentration of lipids – Long chain PUFA’s – DHA • Minerals are highly bioavailable • Immunological factors – – – – – – – – – Secretory immunoglobulins Histocompatitibility antigens T-cell products Bi...
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