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Unformatted text preview: e time. This intervention
was designed to encourage the son and his mother to change the way they were
protecting each other. The mother’s need for help was transformed into play, as
was the son’s helpfulness. Follow-up sessions found the night terrors had ceased,
the mother was in a productive job and working on her relationships, and the
son was involved in sports and in school. The goals of therapy were reached in
two stages. At first the paradoxical directive blocked the ways in which the
symptoms of the son served to help his mother avoid confronting her problems.
Later, the mother regained her appropriate position in the hierarchy.
Most recently, Madanes has moved away from strategic and structural models
and is closer to the work of Satir (see Chapter 6: Experiential). She now
hypothesizes that family problems result from a “dilemma between love and
violence” (Madanes, 1990, cited in Piercy, et al., 1996, p. 52). In this model, family
members have four aims, and problems in each area tend to lead to different
types of symptoms: 1) to dominate and control — leading to behavioral problems
such as delinquency and drug abuse; 2) to be loved — leading to depression,
psychosomatic problems, phobias, eating disorders; 3) to love and protect —
leading to suicide, abuse, neglect; and 4) to repent and forgive — leading to
incest, murder, abuse (Nichols & Schwartz, Piercy, et al.).The goal is to intervene
in the family through a 16-step program to bring the family toward love and Chapter 4: Strategic & Systemic
away from violence. She also includes “growth-oriented objectives like balance,
harmony and love” (Nichols & Schwartz, p. 365).
Hoffman, L. (1981). Foundations of family therapy. New York: Basic Books.
Chapter 11: Breaking the Symptomatic Cycle. 197-218.
Hoffman presents three family cases, each illustrating symptomatic sequences
that influence the schismogenic tendency of relationships. The families are each
seen by therapists with different theoretical perspectives, but in each case the
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This document was uploaded on 04/03/2014.
- Spring '09