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Day 24_Goldstein Lecture What is Development

Percentage of contact andand water immersion righting

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Unformatted text preview: D Table 2. Percentage of contact andand water-immersion righting r Table 2. Percentage of contact water-immersion righting respo observed in neonatal ratsrats that underwent prenatal developmen observed in neonatal that underwent prenatal development sp 62 A. RONCA, C. L AMKIN , AND J. ALBERTS showed that fetuses can detect certain cues that normally increasingly susceptible to extrinsic s timul i as the a mniotic imping e on it w ithi n in the uterine environment . Thus, precushio n shrinks. Locomotion and other a ctivitie s of the natal organisms can detect and respond to sensory cues. mother may p itch , t urn , accelerate, and expose fetuses to However, the sensory aspects of the uterine environmen t are mechanical pressures. D urin g parturition, u terin e contracpoorly understood. tions create intense mechanical pressures, squeezing, and The mother's behavior and physiology are almost cermoving the fetus along the birth canal. On delivery the tainl y the major sources of fetal sensory experience. Maternewborn is exposed to a range of novel sensory experiences nal contributions to the intrauterine acoustic environment as the mother licks, handles, and carries o ffspring . hav e been demonstrated in such species as h uman s and Tactile, vestibular, and thermal sensitivities may play spesheep, in which auditory function has prenatal onset. cial roles during perinatal life. These modalities are among Decasper and Fifer (1980) demonstrated newborns' recogthe first to emerge in vertebrate development (Alberts, nitio n of specific acoustic events, based on prenatal auditory 1984; Gottlieb, 1971). Even in altricial species, such as the experience. Other features of the intrauterine acoustic enviNorwa y rat, these early developing systems begin to operate ronmen t that may hold salience for the f etu s include the prenatall y and t hu s provide the earliest forms of sensory experience. materna l heartbeat, pulse , and borborygmi, t ha t is, the auTo i dentif y specific tactile and vestibular stimuli to w hich dible by-products of digestion (Fifer & Mo...
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