Witte Hi Pt S P Geology

The lower part of the record shows that spruce and

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Unformatted text preview: ot depth (~7500 years ago) suggests 33 Age (years ago) Depth (feet) present surface Climate warmer cooler Dominant Forest Cover 10-19% Explanation 1,000 2,000 20-49% 10-19% 0.5 20-49% 10-19% 2 Oak 10-19% 4 3,000 20-49% 10-19% 6 4,000 Chestnut 50-70% 10-19% 8 5,000 Birch 50-70% 10-19% 10 50-70% 6,000 Hemlock 10-19% 12 50-70% 7,000 14 Pine 50-70% 8,000 9,000 10-19% 16 50-70% 20-49% 10-19% 18 Spruce 50-70% 20-49% 10,000 20 Cedar Figure 19. Stop 5: Forest succession around Cedar Swamp, High Point State Park, during the last 10,000 years. Dominant trees and percentages are based on a percent-pollen diagram constructed by William A. Neiring, in The Past and Present Vegetation Of High Point State Park, New Jersey in Ecological Monographs, April, 1953, v. 23, p. 127-148. Relative climate change is estimated on the percentage of cold- tolerant vs. temperate-tolerant species of tree. 34 a warmer and dry climate, whereas the appearance of hemlock shortly thereafter records the change to a cooler and moister period during the middle part of the Holocene. The upper part of the diagram is marked by several climatic cycles. The co-dominance of oak and chestnut, both warmer-temperature-tolerant species, at the 2-foot level probably represents a warmer period, whereas the re-emergence of birch and hemlock may indicate a shift to cooler and possibly moister conditions. The upper part of the record also shows an increase in the diversity of codominant trees. This may be explained by the closing or filling of the lake basin by dead vegetation, thereby creating a more suitable habitat for cedar and other trees. Pollen collected near the swamp’s surface also reflect deforestation by man during the 19th and 20th centuries. Other occurrences - Swamps are found throughout the park and occupy various settings. The largest ones are in the western side of the park, in areas underlain by thick till. Smaller swamps occupy glacially-eroded valleys and small basins cut in bedrock. Most of these are in the eastern side of the park where the Shawangunk Fo...
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This document was uploaded on 03/21/2014 for the course GEOL 3265 at Kean.

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