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Unformatted text preview: e resulting structures of
the outer part of the Earth
related to the movement of
its crustal plates.
terminal moraine - The end
moraine that marks the farthest advance or maximum
extent of a glacier.
topography - The general configuration of the Earth’s surface, such as its mountains,
valleys, and the shapes of
landforms, that characterizes a given landscape.
Trace fossil - Fossilized track,
trail, burrow, or tube resulting from the movement of an
Triassic - The first period of the
Mesozoic, thought to have
covered the span of time between 225 and 190 million
tundra - A treeless, level or gently undulating plain characteristic of arctic and subarctic regions.
44 Geologic Time Scale 299 to 359
359 to 416
416 to 444
million to temperate (mild). humans
Pleistocene Northern New
evolve. MESOZOIC Late
Early TRIASSIC Middle Late
Late PERMIAN Early PENNSYLVANIAN2
MISSISSIPPIAN2 444 to 488
million Early JURASSIC PHANEROZO IC 251 to 299
million TERTIARY DEVONIAN
Late 488 to 542
million CAMBRIAN Middle 2500 to
4600 million ARCHEAN3 PROTEROZOIC3 Early 542 to 2500
Eoarchean Geology, Life, and Environment Holocene Climate change from boreal (cold) Modern Pliocene
Paleocene CRETACEOUS PALEOZOIC 200 to 251
million QUATERNARY Late 66 to 146
146 to 200
million Epoch Lower limit of
years. Jersey glaciated at least 3 times.
First large mammals appear.
Abundant mammals; first
hominids. Grasses and modern
Heyday of dinosaurs, pterosaurs
and marine reptiles until their
extinction at end of period. First
flowering plants. Earliest birds appear. Giant
dinosaurs (sauropods) flourish.
Plants: ferns, cycads and ginkos.
Age of dinosaurs begins. First
mammals. Mollusks are
Age of Amphibians. Pangea
forms. Greatest mass extinction
ever. Trilobites go extinct.
Widespread coal swamps.
First winged insects and reptiles. 414.2 million-year gap estimated in
geologic record at High Point State Park 1.8 to 66
million Period Many ferns and am...
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