BIOLOGY 210CHAPTER 3: THE CELLULAR LEVEL OFORGANIZATION: ANATOMY OF THECELL
LEARNING OUTCOMES - 133. What are the main biomolecules that make up the plasmamembrane?34. Describe the structure of the plasma membrane and listtwoimportant functions.35. List AND describe the function of all the cell organelles inthe Chapter 3 PowerPoint.Underline the key characteristicsfor each.36. Define passive transport.37. List AND explain all of the types of passive transport.38. Define active transport.39. List AND explain all of the types of active transport.40. Discuss mitosis. Include information on which cells in thebody undergo it and what the results are.
LEARNING OUTCOMES - 241. Discuss meiosis. Include information on which cells in thebody undergo it and what the results are.42. What differences do you notice between mitosis andmeiosis?43. Explain the cell life cycle.44. What stages are involved with interphase?45. Detail the events that occur during each of those stages ininterphase.46. How much of the cell life cycle is spent in mitosis?47. Write out the Central Dogma of Biology.48. Which cellular processes does the Central Dogmadescribe?
LEARNING OUTCOMES - 349. Using the below DNA sequence, write out itscomplementary DNA sequence.AGCTGCCGTGAAAATGCGCTT50. Use the same DNA sequence below and write thesequence for its messenger RNA.AGCTGCCGTGAAAATGCGCTT
FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF CELLS-Cells are the smallestfunctional unit in the body-Cell sizes and shapes vary,but these structurescomplement the specificfunction of each cell type-They are microscopic,ranging from 7.5-300um
VARIOUS CELL SHAPES
Section 3.1The Cell Membrane
CELL MEMBRANES- Two basic types•Plasma membrane: anouter membrane thatforms a barrier betweeninside and outside of thecell•Organelle membranessurround some of theorganelles within thecytoplasm
MEMBRANE STRUCTURE – 1- The Fluid MosaicModel•Mosaic meansmade of manydifferent parts•Fluid: thephospholipids andother componentsare not static – theyflow
MEMBRANE STRUCTURE – 2-Two layers ofphospholipids (called abilayer) form becausehydrophilic heads andhydrophobic tails.-The tails face each other,creating a region in themiddle of the membranethat is inhospitable towater-Cholesterol is present: itgives the fluid membranestability-Proteins are present andhave various functions
Transport Proteins:controlled transportof water-solublemolecules and othermolecules that cannot pass throughPlasma Membrane.MEMBRANE STRUCTURE – 3PROTEINS
MEMBRANE STRUCTURE – 4PROTEINS CONTINUED-Recall from Chapter 2that there arecarbohydrates, lipids andproteins. At times thesewill combine together toform molecules like:•Glycoproteins•Lipoproteins•Glycolipids•Proteoglycans- Marker glycoproteins act asmarkers for recognition of cells ororganelles. They contribute to:•Immune response•Blood Types•Organ transplant acceptanceor rejection•Cell signaling
MEMBRANE STRUCTURE – 5PROTEINS CONTINUEDReceptor proteins:the binding of aspecific molecule to