Then less responsive to glucose eventually fail move

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Unformatted text preview: responsive to glucose eventually fail move from resistance to no longer producing patient requires insulin injections Metabolic derangements Hyperglycemia long term islet cells overwork producing more insulin and becoming exhausted (degenerate) increased urine volume (causes dehydration) Glucosuria, Polyuria, Dehydration thirst polydypsia - increased fluid intake due to excessive high levels of glucose in urine) Increased lipolysis Lipid concentration in blood rises Cardiovascular disease Increased ketones Ketoacidosis muscle must rely on other energy sources acids toxic causes electrolyte changes in blood Complications big vessel Macrovascular disease Myocardial infarction and stroke Gangrene of extremities uncontrolled diabetes - problem with blood flow Microangiopathy non-inflammatory disease of small vessels Hyperglycemia ‘toxic’ to endothelium coagulation, inflammation, edema, and blood flow Peripheral microangiopathy if injured restrict blood flow through renal disease Renal - nephropathy capillary bed Ocular - retina can cause blindness Neuropathy small nerves, inability to sense Cataracts sugars are absorbed into lens of the eye Treatment Specific treatment Injection of insulin Oral medication destruction of islet cells Stimulate beta cells Reduce insulin resistance Relieve workload Dietary restriction Low glycemic index foods (pure sugar is 100) low - meat and pure protein Symptomatic treatment Replace function attempt to transplant islet high risk source...
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