Aging adults who keep muscle strength also keep most

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Unformatted text preview: ging adults who keep muscle strength also keep most of their bone strength and mass. activity is very important Gonadal Insufficiency Osteoclast hyperactive bone is removed normal level laid down, but more is removed due to irregular estrogen level Senility ability to lay down collagen and protein production if you add a poor diet, then it gets really bad Osteoblasts less active reduced protein FINAL EXAM STUFF: need ID card 2 hours long 8 questions - 15 marks each similar to other midterm (written only) similar to previous exam go through case examples check online for exam type questions review session friday as you get older you develop joint problems Joint cartilage has cartilage on surface of bone that are in contact Synovial replaced often fluid provides nutrition for joint particularly cartilage cartilage can compress and spring back due to arrangement collagen arranged in little loops go up through cartilage and back down again gives cartilage sponge mechanism as you compress synovial fluid forced out as you relax fluid goes back in thats how you get nutrition have to use the cartilage have to use joints for them to maintain health not replaced no mechanism to remodel it its either there or its not something you want to look after have connective tissue on edge form part of joint capsule strucutre around joint Synoviocytes cells that line Transition zone where synoviocytes and c. tissue connect? Joints Synovial membrane Joint cartilage chondrocytes collagen matrix proteoglycans water Synovial fluid made up of substances that provide nutrients and support for cartilage french polishing - supply heat and rub it this polishes the wood and gives dark smooth surface Reaction to injury starts to lose matrix - changes its matrix content Degeneration of cartilage increases water content proteins + carb content loss of proteoglycans collagen degradation little loops break chondrocyte necrosis Thinning, Erosion, Eburnation Stabilization joint capsule thickening osteophytes increase use, trauma, problems with synovial membrane, changes in fluid, inflammation over time cartilage gets thinner and eventually erodes and gets down to just bone where there is none then bone rubs on bone, bone on bone causes polishing of bone - called eburnation eburnation fibrosis can’t regenerate so it scars joint does not like this, joint responds by putting fibrous tissue around joint joints get big due to scar tissue bone starts to grow in transition zone eventually you’ll get bone growing across joint - called osteophyte aka bone spur idea is to stabilize and use joint Osteoarthritis not really because of inflammation should be degenerative joint disease has the cardinal signs of inflammation, but its not inflammation that causes it Degenerative Joint Disease because of Progressive loss of cartilage Aging have certain joints that develop osteoarthritis, has nothing to do with movement or activity through that fat creates and inflammatory environment Obesity - adipokines Weight loss +ve effects in animals Reduced or increased load, force changes Macrotrauma or microtrauma due to increased usage 90% prevalence at 65 years Rheumatoid Arthritis Females 20 - 40 Chronic systemic disorder - joints mostly Autoimmunity induced by arthrogenic microbial antigen (citrullinated proteins) Gene/environment/autoimmunity triad CD4+ T cells mediate reaction Synovitis Rheumatoid factor - antibody or antigen - antibody complex to cyclic citrullinated proteins...
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