ch 1 - Chapter 1 The Sociological Perspective Terms and...

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Chapter 1 – The Sociological Perspective Terms and Concepts Sociology – the systematic study of human society Global Perspective – the study of the larger world and our society’s place in it High-Income Countries – nations with very productive economic systems in which people have relatively high incomes Middle-Income Counties – nations with moderately productive economic systems in which people’s incomes are the global average Low-Income Counties – nations with less productive economic systems in which most people are poor Positivism – a way of understanding based on science Theory – a statement of how and why specific facts are related Theoretical Paradigm – a basic image of society that guides thinking and research Structural-Functional Paradigm – a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability Social-Conflict Paradigm – A framework for building theory that sees society as an area of inequality that generates conflict and change Symbolic-Interaction Paradigm – A framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals Social Structure – Any relatively stable pattern of social behavior Social Functions – The consequences of any social pattern for the operation of society as a whole Social Dysfunction – the undesirable consequences of any social pattern for the operation of society
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Manifest Function – the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern Latent Function – Consequences that are largely unrecognized and unintended Macro-Level Orientation – a concern with broad patterns and shape society as a Whole Micro-Level Orientation – A close up focus on social interactions in specific Situations Stereotypes – Exaggerated description applied to every person in some category Social Marginality – State of being excluded from social activity Sociologists Peter Berger –described the sociological perspective as seeing the general in the particular - Identifying general patterns in the behavior of particular people (categories) o Gender, economic status, age - Giving up the familiar idea that human behavior is simply a matter of what people decide to do in favor of the initially strange notion that society shapes our lives Emilie Durkheim – sociology’s pioneer who showed that social forces are at work even in the apparently isolated act of self destruction - Looked at France records and found that men, Protestants, wealthy people and unmarried had a significantly higher suicide rate than
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2008 for the course SOC 101 taught by Professor Ryan during the Spring '08 term at Binghamton.

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ch 1 - Chapter 1 The Sociological Perspective Terms and...

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