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Unformatted text preview: p learned best? Are there leadership competencies that are “universal” and what are they, and what leadership
competencies are discipline specific? Within the context of allied health educators and professionals must investigate the same
questions. Once each discipline determines what to teach, then how to teach it becomes relevant.
INSTRUCTION METHODS, WHERE TO BEGIN?
Traditionally there are three sources of how people learn to lead; the first is “trial and error”, the second “observation of others”
and lastly, “education."3 Closely related to these “three sources” other longitudinal studies found three categories of how
managers learn to manage: 1) job experience and assignments; 2) relationships; and 3) formal education/training3.
Implementing these three instructional methods is critical for successful leadership development. Through clinical education and
© The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice, 2004 Necessity of Leadership Development in Allied Health Education Programs 2 clinical experiences much of allied health care education already includes these two sources, “trial and error” and “observations
of other.” It is the “educational” method of leadership development where the struggles begin. One other potentially significant
issue observed in the literature is the difference between “observations of others” and “relationships”, identified by Brown.3 While
these two have similarities, intrinsic in the terminology are key differences.
Many leadership development programs include an aspect of mentoring, but does that mentoring include developing relationship
or are they merely observation. Although not explicitly stated, it is apparent from other of Brown’s3 statements such as, “people
learn to respond to who and what we are,” and “leading is a dynamic process of human interaction,” and “what was missing from
this context [leadership development] was attention to people” that her idea of relationship is more than mere “observation,” taga-long or watch-and-do. Leadership development involves aspects of relationship between mentor and student that requires
intentional investment of time and resources. Ideally one manages work and leads people.3
Cress, Astin, Zimmerman-Oster, and Burkhardt4 state that, “many educational institutions only give minimal attention to
developing student leaders in terms of specific leadership programs and/or curricula.” There is no shortage of opinions on
leadership, the literature is replete with differing opinions and findings of how leadership is defined, instructed, identified and
evaluated. Other authors suggest that leadership development is “sporadic”, “haphazard” and “illogical”; and that the word
leadership is a “nebulous” term1. For example, students commonly perceived to have leadership skills tend to “shine” by being
less shy, better students (i.e., grasping concepts and application of knowledge),...
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- Fall '14