At some ancient states courts the hereditary nobility

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Unformatted text preview: ernment. Lords of the new territorial states began to style themselves as kings, taking the Boundary line of title that previously only Zhou royalty had enjoyed. At some Ancient States courts, the hereditary nobility began to decline, replaced by ministers appointed for their knowledge of statecraft. To sur0 200 400 600 MILES vive, new states had to transform their agricultural and com0 200 400 600 KILOMETERS mercial wealth into military strength. To collect taxes, conscript soldiers, and administer the affairs of state required Map 1–7. Early Iron Age Territorial States in China during the Sixth Century B.C.E. After the fall of the Western Zhou in China in 771 B.C.E., large records and literate officials. Academies were established to territorial states formed that became increasingly independent of the later fill the need. Beneath the ministers, a literate bureaucracy deZhou kings. veloped. Its members were referred to as shi, a term that had We CRAIMC01_001-039hr.qxp 8/12/10 3:57 PM Page 35 Chapter 1 Document The Birth of Civilization 35 Human Sacrifice in Early China By the seventh century B.C.E. human sacrifice was less frequent in China but still happened. This poem was composed when Duke Mu of the state of Qin died in 631 B.C.E. (For want of better terms, Chinese titles are usually translated into roughly equivalent titles among the English nobility.) Were human feelings different, a thousand years earlier during the Shang? The poem suggests that despite religious belief and the honor accorded the victims, they may not have gone gladly to the grave. Note the identification of Heaven with “that blue one,” the sky. ■ We believe today that it is honorable to die in war for one’s nation. How is that different from dying to serve one’s lord in the afterlife? “Kio” sings the oriole As it lights on the thorn-bush. Who went with Duke Mu to the grave? Yen-hsi of the clan Tsu-chu. Now this Yen-hsi Was the pick of all our men; But as he drew near the tomb-hole His limbs shook with dread. That blue one, Heaven, Takes all our good men. Could we but ransom him There are a hundred would give their lives. “Kio” sings the oriole As it lights on the mulberry-tree. once meant “warrior” but gradually came to mean “scholarbureaucrat.” The shi were of mixed social origins, including petty nobility, literate members of the old warrior class, landlords, merchants, and rising commoners. From this class, as we will see in Chapter 2, came the philosophers who created the “one hundred schools” and transformed China’s culture. Chronology Early China 4000 B.C.E. Neolithic agricultural villages 1766 B.C.E. Bronze Age city-states, aristocratic charioteers, pictographic writing 771 B.C.E. Iron Age territorial states 500 B.C.E. Age of philosophers 221 B.C.E. China is unified Who went with Duke Mu to the grave? Chung-hang of the clan Tsu-chu. Now this Chung-hang Was the sturdiest of all our men; But as he drew near the tomb-hole His limbs shook with dread. That blue one,...
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This document was uploaded on 04/03/2014.

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