Ce the olmec guatemala centers at san lorenzo c 1200c

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Unformatted text preview: axaca (900–1521). The earliest Mesoamerican civilization, that 150–900 C.E. The Classic period of Mayan of the Olmecs, arose during the Pre-Classic on the Gulf civilization in the Yucatán and Coast beginning approximately 1500 B.C.E. The Olmec Guatemala centers at San Lorenzo (c. 1200–c. 900 B.C.E.) and La Venta (c. 900–c. 400 B.C.E.) exhibit many of the character- Chronology CRAIMC01_001-039hr.qxp 8/12/10 3:57 PM Page 37 Chapter 1 The Birth of Civilization AT LA N TIC 37 O CE A N Teotihuacán La Venta -n Monte Alba San Lorenzo MESOAMERICAN CIVILIZATION Olmec Area Caribbean Sea Maya Area Valdivia PACIFIC OCEAN Moche Chavín Aspero ANDEAN CIVILIZATION Huari Nazca Tiwanaku 0 0 500 500 1,000 1,000 1,500 MILES 1,500 KILOMETERS Map 1–8. Civilization in Mesoamerica and the Andes. Both Mesoamerica and the Andean region of South America saw the development of a series of civilizations beginning between 1500 and 1000 B.C.E. actual political integration or the influence of a strong religious center is not known. The period following the decline of Chavín, which archaeologists call the Early Intermediate period, saw the development of distinctive cultures in several regions. Notable among these are the Moche culture on the northern coast of Peru and the Nazca culture on the southern coast. A second period of transregional integration—called the Middle Horizon—occurred around 600 C.E., this time probably associated with empires centered on the highland sites of Huari and Tiahuanaco. The succeeding Late Intermediate pe- Chronology Early Civilization of the Andes ca. 2750 B.C.E.? Monumental architecture at Aspero 800–200 B.C.E.? Chavín (Early Horizon) 200 B.C.E.–600 C.E. Early Intermediate period (Moche on the northern coast of Peru, Nazca on the southern coast) riod was dominated on the northern coast of Peru by the Chimu successors of the Moche state. This period ended with the founding of the vast, tightly controlled empire of the Incas in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries C.E. Summary The Emergence of Civilization. Beginning in 10,000 B.C.E., human beings shifted from a hunter-gather way of life to one marked by settled agriculture and the domestication of animals—a shift known as the “Neolithic Revolution.” Between 4000 and 3000 B.C.E., civilization began to appear in the Tigris and Euphrates valleys in Mesopotamia, then along the Nile River in Egypt, and somewhat later in the Indus valley in India and the Yellow River basin in China. Each of these early civilizations developed urban centers, monumental architecture, a hierarchical society, and a system of writing. The period is known as the Bronze Age because it coincided with the discovery of the technique for making bronze tools and weapons. Mesopotamia. The Sumerians founded the oldest Mesopotamian cities around 3000 B.C.E. Beginning around 2370 B.C.E., the Sumerian city-states were conquered and CRAIMC01_001-039hr.qxp 38 8/12/10 3:57 PM Page 38 Part 1 Human Origins and Early Civilizations to 500 B.C.E. absorbed in turn by the Akkadian, Babylonian, and Assyrian Empir...
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