Ce as we shall see in chapter 3 ptolemy one of

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Unformatted text preview: E. the Romans defeated Egypt, effectively ending the independent existence of a civilization that had lasted three millennia. The unification of Upper and Lower Egypt was vital, for it meant that the entire river valley could benefit from an unimpeded distribution of resources. Three times in its history, Egypt experienced a century or more of political and social disintegration, known as Intermediate periods. During these eras, rival dynasties often set up separate power bases in Upper and Lower Egypt until a strong leader reunified the land. CRAIMC01_001-039hr.qxp 16 8/12/10 3:57 PM Page 16 Part 1 Human Origins and Early Civilizations to 500 B.C.E. Map Exploration To explore this map further, go to http://www.myhistorylab.com Black Sea ARMENIA Aegean Sea GREECE Athens Mycenae Pylos Ha lys Riv er Hellespont Troy River Hermus Lake Van Kültepe Tyana Mts. Cilician Gates rus Tau LYCIA Ialysos Tarsus Mersin Ugarit Sea Mt. Sinai Riv er Nippur YL Uruk ON IA Larsa Susa Ur RA BI A Gu Amarna lf UPPER EGYPT Thebes Red Mycenaean Expansion Mediterranean Sea Sea Hittite Empire Egyptian Empire NUBIA Riv er Kingdom of the Mitanni Babylonia under the Kassites Ni le 300 MILES 300 KILOMETERS Mt M A s EL A Jerusalem gro s. AB Dead Sea SINAI Mycenae Athens Sea Tiryns Argos Pylos GREECE Knossos Tylissos Mallia Palaikastro Crete Agia Triada Zakros Phaistos Gournia Megiddo Jericho IRAN Za Eshnunna Babylon Memphis Orchomenos Thebes Aegean Nuzi B Tanis LOWER EGYPT Assur PALMYRA Sea of Galilee Mt. Carmel Joppa Ascalon Tadmor Kadesh Damascus Arbela is Tigr Aradus Byblos Beirut Sidon Tyre Nineveh ver Ri LIBYA Carchemish es rat ph Eu CYPRUS Enkomi Tell Halaf Harran Aleppo Alalakh Mediterranean Sea Mt. Ararat Alishar HATTI de r R . Maean Miletus CRETE Hattusas Caspian Map 1–3. The Near East and Greece, ca. 1400 B.C.E. About 1400 b.c.e., the Near East was divided among four empires. Egypt extended south to Nubia and north through Palestine and Phoenicia. Kassites ruled in Mesopotamia, Hittites in Asia Minor, and the Mitannians in Assyrian lands. In the Aegean, the Mycenaean kingdoms were at their height. The Old Kingdom (2700–2200 B.C.E.) The Old Kingdom represents the culmination of the cultural and historical developments of the Early Dynastic period. For over 400 years, Egypt enjoyed internal stability and great prosperity. During this period, the pharaoh was a king who was also a god (the term comes from the Egyptian for “great house,” much as we use “White House” to refer to the president). From his capital at Memphis, the god-king administered Egypt according to set principles; prime among these principles was maat, an ideal of order, justice, and truth. In return for the king’s building and maintaining temples, the gods preserved the equilibrium of the state and ensured the king’s continuing power, which was absolute. Because the king was obligated to act infallibly in a benign and beneficent manner, the welfare of the people of Egypt was automatically guaranteed and safeguarded. Read the Document Workings of Ma’at: “The Tale of...
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This document was uploaded on 04/03/2014.

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