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Unformatted text preview: E. the Romans defeated Egypt,
effectively ending the independent existence of a civilization
that had lasted three millennia.
The unification of Upper and Lower Egypt was vital, for
it meant that the entire river valley could benefit from an
unimpeded distribution of resources. Three times in its history, Egypt experienced a century or more of political and social disintegration, known as Intermediate periods. During
these eras, rival dynasties often set up separate power bases
in Upper and Lower Egypt until a strong leader reunified
the land. CRAIMC01_001-039hr.qxp 16 8/12/10 3:57 PM Page 16 Part 1 Human Origins and Early Civilizations to 500 B.C.E. Map Exploration
To explore this map further, go to http://www.myhistorylab.com Black Sea ARMENIA Aegean
GREECE Athens Mycenae
er Hellespont Troy
Hermus Lake Van Kültepe Tyana Mts. Cilician Gates rus
Ialysos Tarsus Mersin Ugarit Sea Mt. Sinai Riv er Nippur YL Uruk
IA Larsa Susa Ur RA
Gu Amarna lf UPPER
Mycenaean Expansion Mediterranean Sea Sea Hittite Empire
Egyptian Empire NUBIA
er Kingdom of the Mitanni
Babylonia under the Kassites Ni le 300 MILES
300 KILOMETERS Mt M A s EL A Jerusalem gro s. AB Dead Sea SINAI Mycenae
Phaistos Gournia Megiddo
Jericho IRAN Za Eshnunna
Babylon Memphis Orchomenos
Thebes Aegean Nuzi B Tanis LOWER
EGYPT Assur PALMYRA Sea of Galilee Mt. Carmel
Damascus Arbela is
Tyre Nineveh ver
Ri LIBYA Carchemish
Enkomi Tell Halaf Harran
Aleppo Alalakh Mediterranean Sea Mt. Ararat Alishar HATTI de r R .
Maean Miletus CRETE Hattusas Caspian Map 1–3. The Near East and Greece, ca. 1400 B.C.E. About 1400 b.c.e., the Near East was divided among four empires. Egypt extended south to Nubia and
north through Palestine and Phoenicia. Kassites ruled in Mesopotamia, Hittites in Asia Minor, and the Mitannians in Assyrian lands. In the Aegean, the Mycenaean
kingdoms were at their height. The Old Kingdom (2700–2200 B.C.E.) The Old Kingdom represents the culmination of the cultural and historical developments of the Early Dynastic period. For over
400 years, Egypt enjoyed internal stability and great prosperity. During this period, the pharaoh was a king who
was also a god (the term comes from the Egyptian for
“great house,” much as we use “White House” to refer to
the president). From his capital at Memphis, the god-king
administered Egypt according to set principles; prime among these principles was maat,
an ideal of order, justice, and truth.
In return for the king’s building and
maintaining temples, the gods preserved the equilibrium of the state and ensured the king’s
continuing power, which was absolute. Because the king
was obligated to act infallibly in a benign and beneficent
manner, the welfare of the people of Egypt was automatically guaranteed and safeguarded.
Read the Document Workings of Ma’at: “The Tale of...
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This document was uploaded on 04/03/2014.
- Spring '14