Ce with evidence of barley and wheat cultivation

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Unformatted text preview: evidence of barley and wheat cultivation, baked brick dwellings, and, later, domestication of animals such as goats, sheep, and cows, and, after about 4000 B.C.E., metalworking. The subcontinent’s earliest literate, urban civilization arose in the valley of the Indus River sometime after 2600 B.C.E. and by about 2300 B.C.E. was trading with Mesopotamia. Known as the Indus valley culture (or the Harappan civilization, after the archaeological site at which it was first recognized), it lasted only a few centuries and left many unanswered questions about its history and culture. The region’s second identifiable civilization was of a different character. Dating to about 1500 B.C.E., it is known as the Vedic Aryan civilization—after the nomadic Indo-European immigrant people, or Aryans, who founded it, and their holy texts, or Vedas. This civilization endured for nearly a thousand years without cities or writing, but its religious and social traditions commingled with older traditions in the subcontinent— notably that of the Indus culture—to form the Indian civilization as it has developed in the past 2,500 years. ca. 1400–1200 B.C.E. Hittite Empire ca. 1100 B.C.E. Rise of Assyrian power 732–722 B.C.E. Assyrian conquest of Syria-Palestine The Indus Civilization 671 B.C.E. Assyrian conquest of Egypt 612 B.C.E. Destruction of Assyrian capital at Nineveh 612–539 B.C.E. Neo-Babylonian (Chaldean) Empire Archaeologists discovered the existence of the Indus culture at the site of Harappa in the 1920s. Since then, some seventy cities, the largest being Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, have been identified over a vast area from the Himalayan foothills west and south on the coasts of the Arabian Sea. This urban civilization had bronze tools, writing, covered CRAIMC01_001-039hr.qxp 3:57 PM Page 24 Part 1 Human Origins and Early Civilizations to 500 B.C.E. us R . 24 8/12/10 Ind Mt s. Su lai ma n Iranian Plateau LU CH IS T ge Ran an akr M BA A N Plateau KASHMIR GANDHARA of PUNJAB Tibet •Harappa . us R Ind • Mohenjo- Daro Thar Desert (Great Indian Desert) SIND NORTH INDIA Narma da (N arba da) R. Bay Arabian THE DECCAN Bengal Sea Indus (Harappan) Culture SOUTH INDIA Vedic Aryan Culture of (TAMIL NADU) SRI LANKA 0 0 250 250 500 500 750 MILES (CEYLON) 750 KILOMETERS Map 1–4. Indus and Vedic Aryan Cultures. Indus culture likely influenced the Vedic Aryans, although the influence cannot be proved. Some scholars surmise, for example, that the fortified Aryan city of Hariyupiya, mentioned in later texts, may have been the same site as the older Indus city of Harappa. drainage systems, and a diversified social and economic organization. Because it disappeared before 1500 B.C.E. and its writing is still undeciphered, it remains the least understood of the early river valley civilizations. Archaeological evidence and inferences from later Indian life, however, allow us to reconstruct something of its highly developed and once thriving culture. General Character The Indus culture covere...
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