Ce witnessed two major developments one was the

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: witnessed two major developments. One was the emergence, between roughly 600–300 B.C.E., of the religious and philosophical revolutions that would indelibly mark their respective civilizations: monotheistic Judaism from which would later develop the world religions of Christianity and Islam; Hinduism and Buddhism in southern Asia; the philosophies of Greece and China. The second development was the rise of the Iron Age empires—the Roman, complex way of life began to appear in some parts of the world. In these places humans learned how to increase harvests through irrigation and other methods, making possible much larger populations. They came together in towns, cities, and other centers, where they erected impressive structures and where industry and commerce flourished. They developed writing, enabling them to keep inventories of food and other resources. Specialized occupations emerged, complex religions took form, and social divisions increased. These changes marked the birth of civilization. ■ from one generation to another. Our flexible and dexterous hands enable us to hold and make tools and so to create the material artifacts of culture. Because culture is learned and not inherited, it permits rapid adaptation to changing conditions, making possible the spread of humanity to almost all the lands of the globe. Early Humans and Their Culture Humans, unlike other animals, are cultural beings. Culture is the sum total of the ways of living built up by a group and passed on from one generation to another. Culture includes behavior such as courtship or childrearing practices; material things such as tools, clothing, and shelter; and ideas, institutions, and beliefs. Language, apparently a uniquely human trait, lies behind our ability to create ideas and institutions and to transmit culture 2 The Paleolithic Age Anthropologists designate early human cultures by their tools. The earliest period—the Paleolithic Age (from the Greek, “old stone”)—dates from Read the Document the earliest use of stone tools some From Hunter-gatherers to Foodproducers–Overcoming Obstacles 1 million years ago to about 10,000 at MyHistoryLab.com B.C.E. During this immensely long period, people were hunters, fishers, and gatherers, but not producers, of food. They learned to make and use increasingly sophisticated tools of stone and perishable materials like wood; they learned to make and control fire; and they acquired language and the ability to use it to pass on what they had learned. These early humans, dependent on nature for food and vulnerable to wild beasts and natural disasters, may have developed responses to the world rooted in fear of the unknown—of the uncertainties of human life or the overpowering CRAIMC01_001-039hr.qxp 8/12/10 3:57 PM Page 3 the Mauryan along the Ganges, the Han in China—during the centuries straddling the end of the millennium. After the fall of these early empires, swift changes occurred. For a millennium, Europe and Byzantium fell behind, while China and the Middle East led in technology and the art...
View Full Document

This document was uploaded on 04/03/2014.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online