Euphrates in syria with frequent campaigns in the one

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Unformatted text preview: e Sudan, almost 1,300 miles tains the first known mention of Israel. from Memphis. Egypt’s economic and poDespite Merneptah’s efforts, by litical power was at its height. the end of the Twentieth Dynasty, Egypt’s position was reflected in the Egypt’s period of unprecedented luxury and cosmopoliimperial glory had tanism of the royal Watch the Video Ramses II’s Abu Simbel Read the Document passed. The next court and in the at The Report of Wenamun thousand years ambitious palace at witnessed a Third and temple projIntermediate period, a Saite renects undertaken throughout the aissance, Persian dominacountry. The Eighteenth Dytion, conquest by Alexander nasty pharaohs were the first to the Great, the Ptolemaic pecut their tombs deep into the riod, and finally, defeat at rock cliffs of a desolate valley the hands of the Roman emin Thebes, known today as the peror Octavian in 30 B.C.E. Valley of the Kings. To date, only one intact royal tomb has been Language and Literature discovered there, that of the Writing first appears in Egypt young Eighteenth Dynasty about 3000 B.C.E. The writing king Tutankhamun, and even system, dubbed hieroglyphs it had been disturbed shortly Seated Egyptian Scribe. One of the hallmarks of the early river valley (“sacred carvings”) by the after his death. The thousands civilizations was the development of writing. Ancient Egyptian scribes had Greeks, was highly sophistiof goods buried with him, to undergo rigorous training but were rewarded with a position of respect and privilege. This statue from the Fifth Dynasty (ca. 2510–2460 B.C.E.) is of cated, involving hundreds of many of them marvels of painted limestone and measures 21 inches (53 cm) in height. Musée du picture signs that remained craftsmanship, give a glimpse Louvre, Paris, © Giraudon/Art Resource, New York. relatively constant in the way of Egypt’s material wealth durthey were rendered for over 3,000 years. A cursive version of ing this period. hieroglyphs was used for business documents and literary Following the premature death of Tutankhamun in texts, which were penned rapidly in black and red ink. The 1323 B.C.E., a military commander named Horemheb assumed the kingship, which passed in Egyptian language, part of the Afro-Asiatic (or Hamito-Seturn to his own army commander, mitic) family, evolved through several stages—Old, Middle, View the Image Ramses I. The Ramessides of Dynasty and Late Egyptian, Demotic, and Coptic—thus giving it a Egyptian Throne of Tutankhamun, 1333–1323 B.C.E. 19 undertook numerous monumental history of continuous recorded use well into the medieval at projects, among them Ramses II’s period. rock-cut temples at Abu Simbel, Egyptian literature includes narratives, myths, books of View the Image south of the First Cataract, which had instruction in wisdom, letters, religious texts, and poetry, writGreat Temple of Abu Simbel to be moved to a higher location when ten on papyri, limestone flakes, and potsherds. (See Docuat the Aswan High Dam was built in the ment, “Love Poems from the New Kingdom.”) Unfortunately, 1960s. There...
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