Unformatted text preview: ilization 17 structure by more clearly defining the nomarchs’ duties to the state, granting them
some local autonomy within the royal
structure. Third, he established a co-regency system to
smooth transitions from one reign to another.
Amunemhet I and the other Middle Kingdom pharaohs
sought to evoke the past by building pyramid complexes like
those of the later Old Kingdom rulers. Yet the events of the
First Intermediate period had irrevocably changed the nature of Egyptian kingship. Gone was the absolute, distant
god-king; the king was now more directly concerned with
his people. In art, instead of the supremely confident faces
of the Old Kingdom pharaohs, the Middle Kingdom rulers
seem thoughtful, careworn, and brooding.
Egypt’s relations with its neighbors became more aggressive during the Middle Kingdom. To the south, royal fortresses
were built to control Nubia and the growing trade in African resources. To the north and east, Syria and Palestine increasingly
came under Egyptian influence, even as fortifications sought to
prevent settlers from the Levant from moving into the Delta.
See the Map
Egypt in the Middle
at MyHistoryLab.com The Second Intermediate Period and the New
Kingdom (1630–1075 B.C.E.) During Dynasty 13, the
kingship changed hands rapidly and the western Delta established itself as an independent Dynasty 14, ushering in
the Second Intermediate period. The eastern Delta, with its
expanding Asiatic populations, came under the control of
the Hyksos (Dynasty 15) and minor Asiatic kings (Dynasty 16).
Meanwhile, the Dynasty 13 kings left their northern capital
and regrouped in Thebes (Dynasty 17).
The Hyksos were almost certainly Amorites from the
Levant, part of the gradual infiltration of the Delta during
the Middle Kingdom. After nearly a century of rule, the
Hyksos were expelled, a process begun by Kamose, the last
king of Dynasty 17, and completed by his brother Ahmose,
the first king of the Eighteenth Dynasty and the founder of
the New Kingdom. Chronology
Major Periods in Ancient Egyptian History
(Dynasties in Roman Numerals)
3100–2700 B.C.E. Early Dynastic period (I–II) 2700–2200 B.C.E. Old Kingdom (III–VI) 2200–2025 B.C.E. First Intermediate period (VII–XI) 2025–1630 B.C.E. Middle Kingdom (XII–XIII) 1630–1550 B.C.E. Second Intermediate period (XIV–XVII) 1550–1075 B.C.E. New Kingdom (XVIII–XX) CRAIMC01_001-039hr.qxp 18 8/12/10 3:57 PM Page 18 Part 1 Human Origins and Early Civilizations to 500 B.C.E. Merneptah, one of the 100 offspring of RamDuring the Eighteenth Dyses II, held off a hostile Libyan attack, as well as
nasty, Egypt pursued foreign exincursions by the Sea Peoples, a loose coalition of
pansion with renewed vigor. MilMediterranean raiders who seem to have provoked
itary expeditions reached as far north as the
and taken advantage of unsettled conditions.
Euphrates in Syria, with frequent campaigns in the
One of Merneptah’s inscriptions comLevant. To the south, major Egyptian temples
memorating his military triumphs conwere built in th...
View Full Document
- Spring '14