First he moved his royal residence from thebes to a

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Unformatted text preview: ilization 17 structure by more clearly defining the nomarchs’ duties to the state, granting them some local autonomy within the royal structure. Third, he established a co-regency system to smooth transitions from one reign to another. Amunemhet I and the other Middle Kingdom pharaohs sought to evoke the past by building pyramid complexes like those of the later Old Kingdom rulers. Yet the events of the First Intermediate period had irrevocably changed the nature of Egyptian kingship. Gone was the absolute, distant god-king; the king was now more directly concerned with his people. In art, instead of the supremely confident faces of the Old Kingdom pharaohs, the Middle Kingdom rulers seem thoughtful, careworn, and brooding. Egypt’s relations with its neighbors became more aggressive during the Middle Kingdom. To the south, royal fortresses were built to control Nubia and the growing trade in African resources. To the north and east, Syria and Palestine increasingly came under Egyptian influence, even as fortifications sought to prevent settlers from the Levant from moving into the Delta. See the Map Egypt in the Middle Kingdom at MyHistoryLab.com The Second Intermediate Period and the New Kingdom (1630–1075 B.C.E.) During Dynasty 13, the kingship changed hands rapidly and the western Delta established itself as an independent Dynasty 14, ushering in the Second Intermediate period. The eastern Delta, with its expanding Asiatic populations, came under the control of the Hyksos (Dynasty 15) and minor Asiatic kings (Dynasty 16). Meanwhile, the Dynasty 13 kings left their northern capital and regrouped in Thebes (Dynasty 17). The Hyksos were almost certainly Amorites from the Levant, part of the gradual infiltration of the Delta during the Middle Kingdom. After nearly a century of rule, the Hyksos were expelled, a process begun by Kamose, the last king of Dynasty 17, and completed by his brother Ahmose, the first king of the Eighteenth Dynasty and the founder of the New Kingdom. Chronology Major Periods in Ancient Egyptian History (Dynasties in Roman Numerals) 3100–2700 B.C.E. Early Dynastic period (I–II) 2700–2200 B.C.E. Old Kingdom (III–VI) 2200–2025 B.C.E. First Intermediate period (VII–XI) 2025–1630 B.C.E. Middle Kingdom (XII–XIII) 1630–1550 B.C.E. Second Intermediate period (XIV–XVII) 1550–1075 B.C.E. New Kingdom (XVIII–XX) CRAIMC01_001-039hr.qxp 18 8/12/10 3:57 PM Page 18 Part 1 Human Origins and Early Civilizations to 500 B.C.E. Merneptah, one of the 100 offspring of RamDuring the Eighteenth Dyses II, held off a hostile Libyan attack, as well as nasty, Egypt pursued foreign exincursions by the Sea Peoples, a loose coalition of pansion with renewed vigor. MilMediterranean raiders who seem to have provoked itary expeditions reached as far north as the and taken advantage of unsettled conditions. Euphrates in Syria, with frequent campaigns in the One of Merneptah’s inscriptions comLevant. To the south, major Egyptian temples memorating his military triumphs conwere built in th...
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