The akkadians conquered all the sumerian city states

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Unformatted text preview: ed numerous peoples, cities, languages, and cultures, as well as different ecological zones, under one rule. Sargon’s name became legendary as the first great conqueror of history. His grandson, NaramSin, ruled from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea, with a standardized administration, vast wealth and power, and a grand style that to later Mesopotamians was a high point of their history. Naram-Sin even declared himself a god and had temples built to himself, something no Sumerian ruler had ever done. External attack and internal weakness destroyed the Akkadian Empire, but several smaller states flourished independently, notably Lagash in Sumer, under its ruler Gudea. About 2125 B.C.E. the Sumerian city of Ur rose to dominance, and the rulers of the Third Dynasty of Ur established an empire built on the foundation of the Akkadian Empire, but far smaller. In this period, Sumerian culture and literature flourished. Epic poems were composed, glorifying the deeds of the ancestors of the kings of Ur. A highly centralized administration kept detailed records of agriculture, animal husbandry, commerce, and other matters. Over 100,000 of these documents have been found in the ruins of Sumerian cities. After little more than a century of prominence, the kingdom of Ur disintegrated in the face of famine and invasion. From the east, the Elamites attacked the city of Ur and captured the king. From the north and west, a Semitic-speaking people, the Amorites, invaded Mesopotamia in large numbers, settling around the Sumerian cities and eventually founding their own dynasties in some of them, such as at Uruk, Babylon, Isin, and Larsa. The fall of the Third Dynasty of Ur ended Sumerian rule, and the Sumerians gradually disappeared as an identifiable group. The Sumerian language survived only in writing as the learned language of Babylonia taught in schools and used by priests and scholars. CRAIMC01_001-039hr.qxp 10 8/12/10 3:57 PM Page 10 Part 1 Human Origins and Early Civilizations to 500 B.C.E. For some time after the fall of Ur, there was relative peace in Babylonia under the Amorite kings of Isin, who used Sumerian at their court and Read the Document considered themselves the succesSumerian Law Code: The Code of Lipit-Ishtar sors of the kings of Ur. Eventually, anat other Amorite dynasty at the city of Larsa contested control of Babylonia, and a period of warfare began, mostly centering around attacks on strategic points on waterways. A powerful new dynasty at Babylon defeated Isin, Larsa, and other rivals and dominated Mesopotamia for nearly 300 years. Its high point was the reign of its most famous king, Hammurabi (r. ca. 1792–1750 B.C.E.), best known today for the collection of laws that bears his name. (See Document, “The Code of Hammurabi.”) Hammurabi destroyed the great city View the Image of Mari on the Euphrates and creHammurabi Receives His Law ated a kingdom embracing most of Code from the Gods Mesopotamia. at
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This document was uploaded on 04/03/2014.

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