This migrafrom 1 million to 15000 years ago tion

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Unformatted text preview: an continent (see Map 1–1). This migraFrom 1 million to 15,000 years ago tion would ultimately separate their deat scendants from other human groups for many thousands of years. In their isolation, however, the inhabitants of the Americas experienced cultural changes parallel to those of Eurasia and Africa. The style of life and the level of technology of the Paleolithic period could support only a sparsely settled society. If hunters were too numerous, game would not suffice. In Paleolithic times people were subject to the same natural and ecological constraints that today mantain a balance between wolves and deer in Alaska. Paleolithic society was probably characterized by a division of labor by sex. Men most likely hunted, fished, and fought other families, clans, and tribes. Women, less mobile because of childbearing, most likely gathered nuts, berries, and wild grains, wove baskets, and made clothing. Women gathering food probably discovered how to plant and care for seeds, knowledge that eventually led to agriculture and the Neolithic Revolution. Focus Questions ■ What were the processes behind the creation of early civilizations? ■ What are the similarities and differences among the world’s earliest civilizations? ■ Why has the pace of change accelerated with time? The Neolithic Age Only a few Paleolithic societies made the initial shift from hunting and gathering to agriculture. Anthropologists and archaeologists disagree as to why, but however it happened, some 10,000 years ago parts of what we now call See the Map the Middle East began to change from a noThe Beginnings of Food Production madic hunter-gatherer culture to a more at settled agricultural one. Because the shift to agriculture coincided with advances in stone tool technology— the development of greater precision, for example, in chipping and grinding—this period is called the Neolithic Age (from the 3 CRAIMC01_001-039hr.qxp 8/12/10 3:57 PM Page 4 Mackenzie Old Crow Bluefish Cave Co Ice rdil S Dry Creek G reenl and n ra le eet h nt ai ns M k ssi p Mis si lain Gr eat P p Ap renc aw al ac a hi EUROPE e s n ai Last Neanderthals die out at c.27,000 BCE n S OCEAN O S C Taimataima A Ori E o noc Gui s N ana hla nd s Amazon Amazon n d e Hig A Basin SOUTH AMERICA Pikimachay Pedra Furada São Francisco Guitarrero Cave early classical settlement A n e Paraná d Alice Böer s Querero ia 4 on Map 1–1. Early Human Migrations. Patagonia settled by 11,000 BCE tag possible colonization route major site 50,000–12,000 BCE extent of ice sheet 18,000 BCE extent of ice sheet 10,000 BCE coastline 18,000 BCE ancient river ancient lake Monte Verde Pa The spread of modern humans Fell’s Cave a h Arid Sahara enters moister phase c.9000 BCE er Nig IC W est In dies El Bosque El Inga Nerja Las Palomas Afalou Bou Thomas Rhummel Quarries AT L A N T I C Valsequillo Lascaux La Madeleine Cro-Magnon Grimaldi Altamira Mazouro Chauvet Strait of Gibraltar: First hominids arrive in Europe from Africa nearly 1 million years ago Early human settlers hunted North America megafauna (mastodons, mammoths, and many other species) as climate change made such animals extinct. ande Gr F CI PA Rio s Lamb...
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This document was uploaded on 04/03/2014.

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