Diffusion p 3 mesopotamia p 7 harappan p 23 neolithic

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Unformatted text preview: es. The Sumerians passed much of their civilization down to their successors: a system of writing on clay tablets called cuneiform, the worship of gods based on natural forces, semidivine kings, and a highly developed bureaucracy. diffusion (p. 3) Mesopotamia (p. 7) Harappan (p. 23) Neolithic Revolution (p. 7) hieroglyphs (p. 18) Paleolithic Age (p. 2) Indo-European (p. 27) pharaoh (p. 16) Egypt. Watered by the Nile River and protected by deserts and the sea, Egyptian civilization was more secure and peaceful than that of Mesopotamia. Egypt became a unified kingdom around 2700 B.C.E. Religion dominated Egyptian life. The kings, or pharaohs, were considered gods on whom the lives and prosperity of their people depended. Egyptian history is divided into three main periods: Old Kingdom (2700–2200 B.C.E.), Middle Kingdom (2052–1786 B.C.E.), and New Kingdom (1575–1087 B.C.E.). Under the New Kingdom, Egypt contended for mastery of the Near East with the Hittite Empire. Mahabharata and Ramayana (p. 27) raja (rah-JAH) (p. 27) Indus Civilization. By 2300 B.C.E., at least seventy Indus cities, the largest being Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, had developed a sophisticated urban culture. Between 1800 and 1700 B.C.E., Indus civilization disappeared for unknown reasons. In its place, Indo-European (or Aryan) invaders established the “Vedic” culture, named after the ritual writings known as the Vedas. In turn, Vedic culture evolved into a “new” Indian civilization that spread over the whole subcontinent and laid the foundations for the subsequent development of Hindu traditions. China. The Shang Dynasty (1766–1050 B.C.E.) founded the earliest known Bronze Age civilization in China. The Shang and their successors, the Zhou (1050–256 B.C.E.), ruled as warrior aristocrats from city-states that fought outsiders and each other. By the fourth century B.C.E., as population and commerce expanded, rulers needed bigger armies to defend their states and trained bureaucrats to administer them. The result was the consolidation of many petty states into a few large territorial units. The Americas. The first civilizations in the Americas arose in places that produced an agricultural surplus. In Mesoamerica (central Mexico and Central America) this was based on the cultivation of maize (corn). In the Andes valleys, it was based on a combination of agriculture and the rich marine resources of the Pacific. The Olmecs (1500–400 B.C.E.) established the first civilization in Mesoamerica, whereas the first monumental architecture appeared in the Andes region around 2750 B.C.E. Mandate of Heaven (p. 32) Upanishads (oo-PAHNee-shahdz) (p. 29) Mesoamerica (p. 36) Vedas (vay-DAHZ) (p. 23) Review Questions 1. How was life during the Paleolithic Age different from that in the Neolithic Age? What advances in agriculture and human development had taken place by the end of the Neolithic era? Is it valid to speak of a “Neolithic Revolution”? 2. What defines civilization? What are the similarities and differences among...
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