Geo - Unit 2 - 2/15/2008 Wednesday, February 20, 2008 12:42...

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2/15/2008 Wednesday, February 20, 2008 12:42 PM SEDIMENTARY ROCK- rock formed from the weathered products (solids or dissolved materials) of other rocks Products of weathering Erosion and transport mechanisms- gravity, ice, wind, water Changes in clastic material with transport grain shape grain size sorting composition Clastic sedimentary rocks (breccia/conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone claystone/ shale, mudstone) Products of weathering o rock fragments o unaltered mineral grains o altered weathering products (dominantly clay minerals and oxides) o ions in solution Erosion- general term for the processes by which rock is broken down and the products moved weathering - the breaking down of rocks o transport is moving the products deposition - the process of sediment accumulation that occurs when transport of solids or dissolved species ceases Sedimentary rock - rock formed from the weathered products (solids or dissolved materials) of other rocks Erosion- general term for the processes by which rock is broken down and the products moved o weathering - the breaking down of rocks o transport is moving the products agents of transport include gravity, wind, ice, and liquid water
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Deposition - the process of sediment accumulation that occurs when transport of solids or dissolved species ceases Waves in ocean and large lakes, and of currents in streams, oceans, and lakes erode and transport material Solids (clasts or detrital material)- o can be transported bouncing or rolling along the stream bed and is then called “bed load” or o can be suspended within the flow and then is call “suspended load” Dissolved ions are called the “dissolved load” 2/18/2008 Wednesday, February 20, 2008 1:10 PM Chemical sediments non-biological (evaporites- halite, gypsum) biological (limestone, chert/diatomite, coal) Lithification/diagenesis (turning into rock) compaction cementation recrystallization Environmental Interpretation Uniformitarianism - “the present is the key to the past” grain type/composition, grain size, grain shape, sorting sedimentary structures sedimentary facies METAMORPHISM - textural and compositional responses to temperature and pressure Evaporites – sediment left behind from where water evaporated Rock salt, gypsum, sometimes limestone Carbonates – mostly shells (including corals) are composed of carbonate and their remains can result in a sedimentary rock called limestone Chemical sediments Non-biological Evaporites- halite, gypsum Biological Carbonate- (shells, many sizes) limestone Silceous- (micro-shells) chert/diatomite
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Organic (trees/vegetation)- coal Coal – lithified vegetation Diagenesis may include: Compaction Cementation Recrystallization/replacement Depositional environment Physical, biological, and chemical conditions (that is, the environment) at the time the sediments are deposited Sedimentary Facies
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Geo - Unit 2 - 2/15/2008 Wednesday, February 20, 2008 12:42...

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