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Unformatted text preview: 4-01Intelligence: A general characteristic, including skills in: Verbal abilitiesProblem solvingAdaptive functionoAbility to get along in todays society, especially living independentlyDevelopment of IQ tests:Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon: M.A. (mental age)oFirst people to develop a test with some validityoCame up with the Binet-Simon scale, based on mental ageoVocabulary was the main focusoProblem: if a younger person with a high MA and a older person with a younger MA, are put together, its obvious that it the two arent the sameWilliam Stern: IQ = M.A./C.A. x 100 (C.A. Chronological Age)oHis idea of working out the problemLewis Terman: Standard-Binet (children)oTranslated the test to EnglishoFirst IQ test in AmericanDavid Wechsler: WAIS (adults)oWechsler Adult Intelligence ScaleoStarts around 17-18 age rangeoCame up with a new scaleoWISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children)oThese are still available today, but are revised oftenAlternate views of intelligence: Do IQ tests measure creativity? oMaybe the WAIS scale might pick up a level of creativityWhat about the emotional intelligence = EQ?oThese people that are sensitive to others are very sensitive to themselves. Some people can pick up on feelings naturally.Fluid vs. crystallized intelligenceoFluid = street smartsDecrease with ageoCrystallized intelligence = book smartsStays the same with ageGardners Domains of Intelligence1.Linguistici.Vocabulary2.Spatiali.Operating in 3D3.Musical4.Logical-mathematical5.Bodily-kinesthetic6.Intrapersonal7.Interpersonal8.Naturalistici.Ability to work with the outside world-Needs to be scaled back-Abuses of IQ testsRacial cultural/gender/age/biases (Ethnic Bias)oA lot of work has been done in the world to produce a culture free testoTo do this, the first thing you have to do is drop vocabularyPygmalion effect: self-fulfilling prophecyoMaking something come trueoRosenthallResearcher who did a lot of studies on thisIf you tell a teacher that their kids are smart/dumb, when you test them at the end of the year, they will test according to the initial ideaAll because the teacher sets their teaching practices to thisSmart: the teacher knows the kids have the abilitiesDumb: the teacher knows the kids dont have the abilitiesCharacteristics of the low and high ends of the scale of intelligence: retardation vs. giftednessMental retardation/mentally handicappedDefinitionoIQ < 70oImpaired adaptive functionoPresent at an early age...
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- Spring '08