violence_video_speech - EBSCOhost EBSCO Publishing Citation...

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10/10/13 EBSCOhost 1/12 EBSCO Publishing Citation Format: AMA (American Medical Assoc.): NOTE: Review the instructions at and make any necessary corrections before using. Pay special attention to personal names, capitalization, and dates. Always consult your library resources for the exact formatting and punctuation guidelines. Reference List Levin D, Carlsson-Paige N. Marketing Violence: The Special Toll on Young Children of Color. Journal Of Negro Education [serial online]. Fall2003 2003;72(4):427-437. Available from: Academic Search Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed October 10, 2013. <!--Additional Information: Persistent link to this record (Permalink): direct=true&db=a9h&AN=12941872&site=ehost-live End of citation--> Author: Carlsson-Paige, Nancy Title: Marketing Violence: The Special Toll on Young Children of Color Source: J Negro Educ; Fall 2003; 72, 4; pg. 427-437 ISSN: 0022-2984 Publisher: Howard University © 2003 Copyright Howard University . Provided by ProQuest LLC. All Rights Reserved. Ever since the regulation of children's television in the 1980s, marketing violence to children through the media has become increasingly prevalent. The violent programs themselves, as well as the toys, video games, and other products linked to them, glorify violence, undermine play, and portray racial stereotypes. While these practices harm all young children, they present a special risk for children of color because of how racial messages are linked to violence in the shows. This situation is especially worrisome for young children of color who are disproportionately represented among low-income children, consume more hours of media per day, and have many other risk factors undermining their healthy development. Young children growing up today spend an enormous amount of time consuming media. Two- to seven-year-olds now average over three hours a day of "screen time" on such activities as watching TV and playing video games (Rideout, Foehr, Roberts, & Brodie, 1999). And when they are not sitting in front of a screen, children are often engaged in play with toys linked to the media (Carlsson-Paige & Levin, 1990). Over the last 20 years, children have increasingly become a consumer group to be marketed to through the media. Children see an average of 20,000 advertisements per year (Strasburger & Donnerstein, 1999). Beyond just advertisements, they are exposed to television shows, video and computer games, Hollywood movies, the Internet, and media-linked toys that market single themes through media cross-feeding and effectively become
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10/10/13 EBSCOhost 2/12 advertisements for each other (McChesney, 1999; Seabrook, 1997). This kind of marketing has successfully created a childhood media culture that touches almost all aspects of children's lives.
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violence_video_speech - EBSCOhost EBSCO Publishing Citation...

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