EBSCO Publishing Citation Format: AMA (American Medical Assoc.):
Review the instructions at
make any necessary corrections before using.
Pay special attention to personal names,
capitalization, and dates.
Always consult your library resources for the exact formatting and
Levin D, Carlsson-Paige N. Marketing Violence: The Special Toll on Young Children of Color.
[serial online]. Fall2003 2003;72(4):427-437. Available from: Academic Search
Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed October 10, 2013.
Persistent link to this record (Permalink):
End of citation-->
Marketing Violence: The Special Toll on Young Children of Color
J Negro Educ; Fall 2003; 72, 4; pg. 427-437
Copyright Howard University .
Provided by ProQuest LLC. All Rights Reserved.
Ever since the regulation of children's television in the 1980s, marketing violence to children
through the media has become increasingly prevalent. The violent programs themselves, as well
as the toys, video games, and other products linked to them, glorify violence, undermine play, and
portray racial stereotypes. While these practices harm all young children, they present a special
risk for children of color because of how racial messages are linked to violence in the shows.
This situation is especially worrisome for young children of color who are disproportionately
represented among low-income children, consume more hours of media per day, and have many
other risk factors undermining their healthy development.
Young children growing up today spend an enormous amount of time consuming media. Two- to
seven-year-olds now average over three hours a day of "screen time" on such activities as
watching TV and playing video games (Rideout, Foehr, Roberts, & Brodie, 1999). And when they
are not sitting in front of a screen, children are often engaged in play with toys linked to the media
(Carlsson-Paige & Levin, 1990). Over the last 20 years, children have increasingly become a
consumer group to be marketed to through the media. Children see an average of 20,000
advertisements per year (Strasburger & Donnerstein, 1999). Beyond just advertisements, they
are exposed to television shows, video and computer games, Hollywood movies, the Internet, and
media-linked toys that market single themes through media cross-feeding and effectively become