TCP IP Illustrated

4648 traceroute program 9 t3 2cleveland cnss40t3ansnet

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Unformatted text preview: igini/Docu...homenet2run/tcpip/tcp-ip-illustrated/tracerou.htm (11 of 17) [12/09/2001 14.46.48] Traceroute Program 9 ( 319 ms 318 ms 324 ms 10 ( 324 ms 318 ms 324 ms 11 ( 353 ms 348 ms 325 ms 12 ( 348 ms 347 ms 325 ms 13 13-0. enssl45.t3.ans. net ( 353 ms 348 ms 325 ms 14 ( 353 ms 348 ms 325 ms 15 GSI.NSN.NASA.GOV ( 353 ms 348 ms 354 ms 16 NIC.DDN.MIL ( 354 ms 347 ms 354 ms Figure 8.8 traceroute to with a loose source route through the NSFNET. This time there appear to be 16 hops with an average RTT of around 350 ms, while the normal route shown in Figure 8.4 had only 13 hops and an average RTT of around 322 ms. The default route appears better. (There are also other decisions made when routes are established. Some are made on the basis of the organizational and political boundaries of the networks involved.) But we said there appear to be 16 hops, because a comparison of this output with our previous example through the NSFNET (Figure 8.5) shows three missing routers in this example using loose source routing. (These are probably caused by bugs in the router's generation of ICMP time exceeded errors in response to source routed datagrams.) The router is missing between netb and butch, and the routers and are also missing between Gabby and There is probably a software problem in these missing routers related to incoming datagrams with the loose source routing option. There are really 19 hops between the source and the NIC, when using the NSFNET. Exercise 8.5 continues the discussion of these missing routers. This example also illustrates another problem. On the command line we have to specify the dotted-decimal IP address of the router instead of it...
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