TCP IP Illustrated

TCP IP Illustrated

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Unformatted text preview: P layer to exchange error messages and other vital information with the IP layer in another host or router. Chapter 6 looks at ICMP in more detail. Although ICMP is used primarily by IP, it is possible for an application to also access it. Indeed we'll see that two popular diagnostic tools, Ping and Traceroute (Chapters 7 and 8), both use ICMP. IGMP is the Internet Group Management Protocol. It is used with multicasting: sending a UDP datagram to multiple hosts. We describe the general properties of broadcasting (sending a UDP datagram to every host on a specified network) and multicasting in Chapter 12, and then describe IGMP itself in Chapter 13. ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) and RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) are specialized protocols used only with certain types of network interfaces (such as Ethernet and token ring) to convert between the addresses used by the IP layer and the addresses used by the network interface. We examine these protocols in Chapters 4 and 5, respectively. 1.4 Internet Addresses Every interface on an internet must have a unique Internet address (also called an IP address). These addresses are 32-bit numbers. Instead of using a flat address space such as 1, 2, 3, and so on, there is a structure to Internet addresses. Figure 1.5 shows the five different classes of Internet addresses. These 32-bit addresses are normally written as four decimal numbers, one for each byte of the address. This is called dotted-decimal notation. For example, the class B address of the author's primary system is 140.252.13.33. The easiest way to differentiate between the different classes of addresses is to look at the first number of a dotted-decimal address. Figure 1.6 shows the different classes, with the first number in boldface. file:///D|/Documents%20and%20Settings/bigini/Docu...homenet2run/tcpip/tcp-ip-illustrated/introduc.htm (7 of 20) [12/09/2001 14.46.31] Chapter 1. Introduction Figure 1.5 The five different classes of Internet addresses. Class R...
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/04/2014 for the course ECE EL5373 taught by Professor Guoyang during the Spring '12 term at NYU Poly.

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